Saturday, September 25, 2010

Seeking the Soul of China: Red Art.


My dear friend,

I have just finished watching Red Art.  

The project I'm engaged in has been the most difficult thing I've ever attempted. I so want to understand.  You are one-quarter of mankind.  It is important to me to understand that large a part of who we are.

I seek the soul here and because China is one-quarter of mankind I seek the soul of mankind here, and I seek my own soul. There is blackness in my soul, and in China's, and in man's and I have seen so much of it in the last several months that I have thought it should drive me mad. If there is that much blackness in China's soul, then there is too in man's and if so then man is worse than worthless, man is a net negative on the universe. This project has been one of the most excruciating times of my life.

It was painful for me to watch the first forty-nine minutes of Red Art last night. The Chinese children taught in song and verse to "Kill! Kill! Kill!"  The hatred. It was painful to hear the hatred inculcated in children and adults alike. Hatred of most everyone but Mao Zedong it seemed like.  But it was particularly painful for me to hear the hatred of America, for I love my country.

I was shaken today. I don't know shaken very well.  I don't get shaken very often but I have been shaken a few times over China in these last several months and I was today.  I called a Chinese friend living in America when I woke up because I needed to talk to somebody.

Tonight I finished watching Red Art. Do you know that I had never seen your face before?  Do you remember the picture you once sent me, holding up People's Daily, covering your face. So that's my friend, I thought when I finally saw your face last night. That's my friend.

"We do possess the awareness to confess."  I have watched that five times tonight while composing this brief note.  Five times just tonight I have seen you turn your head slightly to the right and then up, away from Hu Jie's camera, in pain, just before you speak. And then, my brave friend, I have watched your face and heard your strong voice break as you say those words. My friend: you redeemed mankind's soul with that,for each of us is part of the soul of man. When one of us commits a black act we darken man's collective soul and when one of us ennobles it, we are all ennobled.

My friend, once long ago, you reached your hand out across cyberspace to the hand of this foreigner. We do understand each other in heart, as you wrote in your note.

Friday, September 24, 2010

China's Great Wall of Silence: "The Cultural Revolution as a Series of Coups," by Chang Mu.

Below is Mr. Chang Mu's essay. This is brief introduction and review. 

Mr. Mu's essay is historically accurate. It was painstakingly researched from available sources in China. The significance of Mr. Mu's essay is not this history but in the email that accompanied it. He explained that he wrote the essay "to introduce Chinese Cultural Revolution to the world." The Chinese government deter its people (when it cannot prevent them entirely) from learning about their history. It is forbidden to study formally the Cultural Revolution in university in China. There is much that the Chinese people do not know about their history and some think, reasonably, that the rest of the world does not know either. 

In fact in the West the decade of the Cultural Revolution is the most written-about ten year period in the 5,000 year history of China.  It may be the most written-about period of any length in China's history. Go into any big bookstore in America. There will be one or more books on the CR.  Books on the CR may be the only books on China on the shelf. Definitive scholarly accounts like Macfarquar and Schoenhals "Mao's Last Revolution" are widely available in the West.  But look at the footnotes in Mr. Mu's essay. Every source is Chinese. Most Chinese, even university professors like Mr. Mu, do not have access to "Mao's Last Revolution," or Jonathan Spence's "In Search of Modern China,"  or Anne F. Thurston's "Enemies of the People," or Chang and Halliday's "Mao: The Unknown Story." Etc.

It will pain Mr. Mu to read this. He may be embarrassed, humiliated.  There is pain in the soul of the Chinese people.

The whole process Chinese Culture Revolution is a series of coups

[Summary] From Mao Zedong began to launch the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” in 1966, to the Chinese Communist Party’s 11th National Representative Congress fromally announced the “Great Cultural Revolution” being over, it caused all China in a turmoil and catastrophe, and Deng Xiaoping called it “decade-long calamity”. Disregarding the launching process of Cultural Revolution, and during the the Cultural Revolution period Mao’s strategy transformation which caused “usurp power” and “contrary-usurp power”, large-scale violence between factories and the official replacement, as well as the process of so-called “crushing the Gang of Four”after Mao’s death, the process of the ending of the Cultural Revolution; analyse these processes based the happening causes, the phenomenon and the consequences, we can say all the processes were the “coups”. In other words, the decade process of China's Cultural Revolution is a large disturbance constituted by a series of bloody and bloodless coups.
We all know that the so-called “coup” is the taking over an existing country usually violently and illegaly in a short period of time. Deng Xiaoping said, “the Cultural Revolution is a decade-long calamity.”[1] This topic is that the whole process Chinese Culture Revolution is a series of coups, it’s launching, it’s transformation and it’s ending, all are the coups, this conclusion seems untenable, because "coup" took place a short period of time, what happened ten years how to say “coups” mean? The purpose of this paper is to explain the problem.
1. Mao and Lin forge an alliance to divest Liu Shaoqi’s power was a coup
Cultural Revolution is a purges, Mao cleared away Liu Shaoqi and others factions who hinder Mao’s imperial successor and for maintenance his imperial status.
On the “Seventh Chinese Communists All Congress” in Yanan, Liu Shaoqi and other touted Mao as a "God" and the party constitution wrote “Mao Zedong Thought is the guideline for all work”, Mao became China's,Stalin and the undisputed emperor; Liu has thus become the second in command. CCP's rule is autocratic Emperor Mao, the CCP's constitution and the Chinese Constitution are null and void to him. The CPC Party Constitution fixed that the term of office of the Party leader is three to five years. If it really practice, mao will end his power, so Mao has to engage in “Mass movement”. Mao wanted to choose the most favorable time to convene a party congress, he can be safe become the party's chairman, so he postponed 17 years to convene the 7th party congress in 1945, and postponed 11 years to convene 8th party congress in 1956. Party Constitution decides the 9th party congress in 1961, this is the time when tens of millions starved to death, if this time held the congress, Mao may has to step down, so he postponed indefinitely by engaging in mass movement. Chinese "National Constitution” was formulated in 1954, It provides a system of five-year term to the Head of State, Chairman of the Central Government. Mao did the second successive Chairmen of state, its term of office would end in 1959. Since the impact of the Soviet anti-Stalinist, on the Eighth Party Congress in 1956, Liu and others remove Mao thought content from the party constitution, which makes Mao hates Liu. Mao handed over the post of “national Chairman” to Liu in 1959 and “retreat to the back line”. After the “Down Peng Dehuai” Lushan Conference, Mao let Liu clean up the mess of the “Great Leap Forward” and “Great Famine”. In February 1962, on enlarged political bureau meeting (7000 person Assembly), seemingly Liu flattered Mao, substantially criticized errors of Mao's Great Leap Forward and other, more severe than Peng Dehuai, and promoted collective leadership and so on.This greatly increased Liu’s prestige. Mao determined to overthrow the 8th party congress spirit, overthrow the constitution, justifiably arrogate all authority by himself. Mao wanted to overthrow Liu, strategy is to let his wife Jiang to go into action, start from the cultural field, criticizing opera "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office", Hence the name the “Cultural Revolution”.Mao said "the crucial point is dismissed from office, we dismissed Peng's official in Lushan meeting." Lin Biao stated the truth of Mao: “The Soviet Union got out a Khrushchev, the country had changed color…If anyone in China did as Khrushchev (anti-Stalinist), the whole party and the whole country would overthrough him.Cultural Revolution meas to dismissed a group of persons from Office and to Promote a group of persons to a higher position”[2].
When ought to to be considered as starting of the “Great Cultural Revolution”? Mao once said “Great Cultural Revolution began from Yao Wen-yuan's article was published.”[3] It is certain. Yao's article in fact was Mao to appoint Jiang Qing to go to Shanghai and ask Zhang and Yao to draft it in 1965, Mao personally modify the final. On November 10, 1965, Yao's article "Comment on New Historical Drama ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from Office’"published in Shanghai “Wenhui Daily”[4]. Differences between Mao and Liu began from the Eighth Party Congress in 1956. Also from the time Mao wanted to use his great prestige, Gimmick pulling one faction striking one faction, rope non-Party personages in carrying out "Party consolidation" to fight against Liu. But unexpectedly these personages “clear” Mao’s errors. So Mao got angry and conversely rope Deng Xiaoping and Liu, and these persons were said become "the Rightist ", at least 550,000 people accepted a merciless blow, som people among them were oppressed cruelly lethal. These people's family members nearly same be oppressed cruelly[56]. Peng De Huai discontented Mao about his errors, "Great Leap Forward" "people's commune" "indigenous method smelt iron", bring about starving about 40 million peasant to death. In 1959 Mao roped Liu Shao Qi and Lin Biao , Peng is stricken down. In February , 1962, the Communist Party of China Politburo enlarged meeting (seven thousand people assemblies) ,Mao intended to break with Liu completely, but the opportunity was fairly immature. Mao launched a "socialist education campaign”, also called "four clean-ups" movement" (clean up workpoints, clean up account, clean up a storehouse and clean up property), "four clean-ups" was form and pretend, but the reality was to be engaged in a class struggle, stimulate one of the Cultural Revolution to preview a performance.
Waited until Mao and Lin Biao's alliance has forged, troops has been grasped firmly, Mao’s prestige has raised further, his wife Jiang Qing has had certain influence, Mao let Jiang Qin appear personally, criticized historical drama “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office” wrote by Wu Han (Beijing vice mayor), starting from the culture field to launch “the Great Cultural Revolution”.
Why Mao was going to act arbitrarily to launch the Cultural Revolution? How do? Mao does not light up the cards, everybody unable to guess. Liu could not guess. On July 29, 1966, Culture Revolution activist of “All Beijing Universities and Schools Assembly” was held at the Great Hall, Liu was forced to self-criticism the errors of dispatching of work teams. Liu said “how does the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, you do not know, you ask me how to do it, I honest to answer you, I do not know neither.” Zhou Enlai also could not guess, on December 13, 1966, he met with the revolution representatives of the Academy of Sciences, Zhou said “This spring I never dreamed of so called Cultural Revolution. If you had dreamed of it, I admire you.” The CCP senior statesmen and Veteran chief commanders, all do not know.[7]
On August 5 , 1966, Mao has written a Bigcharacter poster“The cannon strikes headquarter”. Mao revealed the card in his hand that he wanted hit Liu and Liu’s clique. Mao depended upon Jiang Qing and Lin Biao to mobilize the student of schools and universities as the main strength to hit “the capitalist-roader”. On July 21, 1966, Mao said that Liu sent the working teams to schools is wrong, had to rescind these working teams. But actually the CCP always carries on “the movement” to send the working teams. And Mao said to the students “the first do not attend class, the secound need eat meal, the third need to cause trouble, cause trouble means revolution”[8]. Mao repeatedly said in the different situation “the schools all of the country suspended classes for six months”, students “ate meal must give off heat, must make trouble, if doesn't cause trouble what they does?” Mao instigated them to strike all authority down , set up new authority. Mao asked a question and answered it himself: “Whom is authority at present? Be Yao Wenyuan”[9,10]. From August to December in 1966, Mao 8 times interviewed 13 million “Red Guards” and “Revolution masses”, therefore China becomes greatly chaotic filthy and does not have the rationality, everywhere “sweep away all bad elements”, From August 1966 to January 1967, “The Rebels” supported by Mao, seized power everuwhere in the whole nation. Mao called it as “January storm of revolution”. Numerous “Capitalist-roaders” were overthrown, Liu clique's influence was overthrown basically.
It started from criticizing “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office” in November, 1965pass through the firing to Beijing Municipal party committee’s “three-family village”(Deng Tuo, Wu Han, Liao Mosha), till to August 1966, Mao wrote the big-character poster “artillery hits the headquarters”, this stage may be called the “preparatory stage of seize power of the Cultural Revolution”. From August 1966 to January 1967, there was a “January storm of revolution”, this stage may be called the “seize power stage”; Seize power stage in fact is the coup d'etat stage, which is in only 6 months, by the violence and the unlawful means that has eliminated Liu Shaoqi’s president power and all levels of Party committees and government's authority, all the power and authority took over by newly founded “Revolutionary committee” which controlled by Mao and his “Central Cultural Revolution Group”.
In September 1968, with the exception of Taiwan, everywhere established the Revolutionary Committee, “Red mountains and rivers in all of the country”. The party committee and government in all the 29 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions,were abolished. At the stage of seize-power as well as the preparing stage of seize-power, there were the turmoils, unnatural death's population is huge, until now did not have the concrete statistical figure. On July 25, 1966, Liaoning University entire has hit 409 “rightists” in this school (These rightists were different from that in 1957). According to incomplete statistics, 1,772 people were beaten to death in one month (August, 1966, which was called “Red Terror August”) in Beijing, and 33,695 households had their homes searched, 85,198 people were expelled from Beijing[11,12]. In August 1966, 74 members of National Political Consultative Conference committee (The total member of the committee is 159 persons) had received Jiang Qing and Kang Sheng's attack, the charges were “the spy”, “the rebel”, “illicit traitorous relations with a foreign country”, “the counter-revolutionary”. Massive cases of injustice were  made and several hundred thousand people were persecuted in each province, city and autonomous region. “The Inner Mongolian Peaple Party Case” caused more than 346,000 people to suffer false charge and persecution, more than 16,000 people were persecuted lethal[13]. “Injustice case in East of Hebei Province” caused 8,240,000 people to receive false charge and more than 2900 people were persecuted lethal[14]. Also there were  “Xinjiang Betrayer Group Case”, “Case of Northeast Gang’s Betraying and Surrenderst” and so on. In the literary and art circles, the scientific and technical circles, the health and sport circles, tens of thousands of people were persecuted lethal.The large-scale murder during the turmoil stage of seize-power as well as to the preparing stage of seize-power, we may call it “the first Red Terror”. The characteristic is killing so-called “the reactionary gang member, the capitalist-roader, the class enemy”.
This coup is a military coup which has fully manifested Mao and his CCP’s spirit of “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.” Mao always does not put on the military uniform, only this time he put on uniform. Mao’s “close comrade” (the title, if it is not Mao identified, that certainly can not be used) Lin Biao substituted for Peng in 1959 as secretary of defense, obviously, Mao is henceforth long premeditated to the coup d'etat. Jiang is also the military, this time she and the members of the Cultural Revolution Group led by her, all wore military uniforms. "Red Guards" mobilized by Mao basically all wore uniforms, Some “Red Guards” also had gun in afterward resort to violence. There were 29 directors of the provincial Revolutionary Committee, 21 are military, accounted for more than 72%, among the remaining 28 percent, many Deputy Directors were military. It can be called the military government.
2. "Fight February Adverse Current" and the national scale of resorting to violence also are coups
How long time Mao intends to do the Great Cultural Revolution? In June, 1966, Wang Li, a member of the Central Cultural Revolution Group said “Chairman Mao decided that it has a vacation for a half year to carry on the Great Cultural Revolution”[15]. Mao planed about six months to be possible to succeed, Mao also proposed several times when he received foreign guests that he estimated six months could finish the Great Cultural Revolution[7]. Obviously was he has underestimated at that time China's objective situation. He thinks at first, so long as he goes into action to “hit the headquarters” personally, Liu's clique may be cleaned cleanly in six months.
The first step of Mao’s political movement is to put on a “culture” coat, criticize historical play “Hai Rui Dismissed from Office”, uncover Beijing Deputy Mayor Wu Han who is not only the historiographer, also the literary arts and CCP bureaucrat, in order to launching this Cultural Revolution. From hiting Wu Han then extended to the so-called Three-family Village” in CCP Beijing Municipal Committee, and then encourages the students and teachers of all schools and universities to seize power of the schools and various units' leadership, and take the opportunity to control the Central Propaganda Department and Central Culture Ministry which Mao thougt these ware dominated by Lu Dingyi. Second, capture the Beijing Municipal Committee which Mao said “the needle inserts not move forward, water drop does not show” and dominated by Peng Zhen (first CCP secretary of Beijing, and Mayor of Beijing). Third, based on grasping Beijing, the Capital and heavy place, then use Party's established procedure, through Political Bureau and the People's Congress, put Liu under isolated. So, Mao achieves his peaceful and unitary[7]. Mao said: “If somebody in central authority playing tricks, I appeal provincial people to rise to attack them right away. Peng Zhen was a small figure mingled within the party. Not so great. I poke a finger down on him”[16].
From October 9 to 28, 1966, Mao hosted the Central Working Conference in Beijing, criticized the bourgeoisie reactionary route. Ye Jian Ying in the convention that very day said: “Chairman Mao says this movement is tentative be engaged till to the next January , still have 4 months. After the 11th CCP Plenary Session, does for two months, must sum up the experience well.” They have not expected, although Liu has overthrown, the aspect is not easy to tidy up, the fire easy to burn, but put out the fire not easy. Finally, circumstances is out of control , the movement is forced to be delayed.
On October 25, 1966, in the central work conference, Mao’s original tone “about six months may succeed” had changed, Mao said “The movement has only done for five months, possibly it must do for two five months, and perhaps need a little more time, can be concluded”[17].
After Mao felt self-satisfied “January revolutionary storm”, around February 1967, some CCP grand old men, like Tan Zhenlin, Chen Yi, Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian, Xu Xiangqian and so on “veteran revolutionary”, expressed strong discontent to the Cultural Revolution in different conventions and meetings. Kang Sheng and others reported this to Mao. On February 18, Mao convened an emergency session, Mao said: “The Central Cultural Revolution Group carries out the policy of 11th Plenary Session of the eighth Central Committee, their error is only 13%, the 97% are correct. Who opposes Central Cultural Revolution Group, whom I oppose determinedly! You deny the Great Cultural Revolution, cannot accomplish! Comrade Ye Qun, you tell Lin Biao that his status is unstable! Some people want seize his power, lets him make preparation. If this Great Cultural Revolution has been defeated, I and he withdraw from Beijing, go to Jinggang Mountains engage in guerrilla warfare again. Arrest and shoot Chen Boda and Jiang Qing! Let Kang Sheng be sent to frontier service! I also leave office, please Wang Ming come back to work as president! You, Chen Yi, want to turn the case of Yan'an Rectification, entire Party does not promise! You, Tan Zhenlin, be also considered as old party member, why stood speaking on bourgeoisie route?” Mao launched the Central Cultural Revolution Group and the rebelling factions to attack these CCP grand old men cruelly. Mao called theirs resistance “February Countercurrent”[18].
Not only Mao and his Central Cultural Revolution Group carried on “counter-attack” to these CCP grand old men’s “February Countercurrent”, also “revolutionary rebel masses” evoked by Mao, interior unceasingly to split to different cliques and factions, the different cliques were unable to co-exist. In the process of seize-power and establishment Revolutionary Committee, the benefit assignment is uneven between the different cliques, in addition to Mao and Jiang Qing’s instigation, large-scale armed fights between factions happened, which led to the “second red terror” climax.. This “red terror” was not hit “the reactionary gang, the capitalist-roader, the class enemy”, but is the massacre between mutually “revolutionary rebel factions”.
In process of seizing-power and anti-seizing-power happens the national large-scale militant fight. On December 30, 1966, Wang Hongwen led more than 100,000 rebel faction to besiege other factions (place is Kangping Road, Shanghai Municipal Party Committee ) to seize power of Shanghai City, a large-scale violence bloodshed was happended, this is the beginning of the national factions resorting to violence. From June to August 1967, the rebel masses incited by the Central Cultural Revolution Group set up a “clutch Liu (Shaochi) firing line”, and ten thousands of people besiege Zhongnanhai. After June 20,1967, in Chongqing, Hunan, Jiangxi and variou places of the country, appeared militant fight between factions, both sides all dead many persons. Mao tolerated regarding the resort to violence for seizing powert, this is the basic reason of the national large-scale militant fight. On July 14 1967, in his southern tour, Mao said to Yang Chengwu, Wang Dongxing and Zheng Weishan: “I thought that Hunan, Jiangxi Nanchang and Ganzhou pass through the large-scale violence, the situation are excellent, the battleline has been also distinct.” On July 18 in Wuhan Mao said to Zhou Enlai , Wang Li and others: “I think that equip them (workers and students) with arms.” Mao wrote comment “Do not see too serious about the populace snatche guns”[19]. Some places the Chinese People's Liberation Army distributed guns to the faction masses which the Army support. The whole nation resorts to violence thereupon in large scale civil war spreads out all round. Now some articles metioned about the national large-scale militant fight, said some place rebels “to rob weapon from the army”, in fact if not have Mao’s permission, who dares to rob? Occurred on July 20 “Wuhan Incident”, is typical, is a major event that shocked the world. Everywhere the situation of large-scale Bloody militant fight happened is much the same as Wuhan’s condition.
Rebels in Wuhan splited into two factions, one was “Workers General” which fight aganst Wuhan Military Region (Chen Zaidao is military commander, supports not greatly to overthrow Liu Shaoqi), the other is "Million Heroes" which supports Wuhan Military Region. In February 1967, “Workers General ” and so on has seized power of the “Yangtze River Daily”. On March 21,Wuhan Military Region announced that the “Workers General” is“reactionary organization”, and has arrested the organization’s leaders. Jiang Qing and so on warned the Wuhan Military Region. The Wuhan Military Region was compelled to release the leaders of the “Workers General”, but did not rehabilitate. Mao decided to arrive Wuhan to solve the problem personally. On July 14 Mao, Zhou Enlai, Xie Fuzhi , Wang Li etc. got to Wuhan. Zhou Enlai announced Mao's instructions in Wuhan: Wuhan Military Region is wrong, and rehabilitation for the “Workers General”, but the "Million Heroes" is a conservative organization. Greatly exceeds the total number of the “Workers General”, the "Million Heroes" refuses to accept. On 20th before dawn, the “Million Heroes” sieged in the Military Region by more than 50 vehicles, interrogated and injured Wang Li, member of the.Central Cultural Revolution. After the Military Region shifted Wang Li away, up to thousand vehicles and about ten thousands of people arm parade at 10 o'clock, streetful slogans of “uncover Xie Fuzhi, strike Wang Li”. All factories in Wuhan stoped work, the traffic disrupted, three people seriously injured, one person was killed. On 19th already left Wuhan's Zhou Enlai returned to Wuhan on 20th, arranged Mao to flee Wuhan on 21st fly to Shanghai (At this time Mao was in isolation and has life-threatening, originally Mao will never take plane). On 21th Wuhan nearly thousand vehicles and ten thousands of people arm- paraded. On 22th Zhou Enlai , Xie Fuzhi , Wang Li etc. returned to Beijing. Lin Biao hosted the Central Cultural Revolution Group meeting that night, took the “7•20 incident” as “counterrevolutionary incident”. On July 22 “People's Daily” published “Thoroughly overthrow a handful inner-party’s capitalist roaders from politics and thought”, and proposed that “clutch handful villains within the military”. On July 25, “million soldiers and civilians welcome Central Delegation returned” was held in Tiananmen Square, and every city of China also held general assembly to declare support for the Wuhan rebels. On July 26, approved by Mao, the Wuhan Military Region was compelled to make “Announcement”, said: “7•20 Incident” are the counter-Mao, counter-party, counter-Great Cultural Revolution's revolting behavior, Chen Zaidao cannot avoid punishment. On July 27, the CCP Central Committee, the State Council, the Central Military Committee, the Central Cultural Revolution Group published “a letter giving revolutionary masses and extensive military men in Wuhan City”, supporting rebel faction. CCP army Marshal Xu Xiangqian, Senior General Xu Haidong and so on were accused as the background of “720 Incident”, encountered searching house and confiscating the property. According to Hubei provincial CCPcommittee statistics, since “7•20 Incident”, the entire province more than 184,000 people were killed. Only in Wuhan, 66,000 people were injured, more than 600 people.were killed[20,21].
The struggle of “Fighting February Adverse Current” and the violence fighting holocaust between the “revolutionary rebels”, are actually the struggles around the establishment of “Revolutionary Committees”, seizing-power and opposing seizing-power..This is yet another bloody and illegal coup, is the Maoist “Revolutionary Committee” regime defence battle, it can be called the “Second Red Terror” climax, in which there are numerous non-normal deaths.
This national large-scale civil war for seize-power and anti- seize-power, explained that although Mao got victory superficially (Jiang Qing and Lin Biao led all country to hold demonstration to declare support for Wuhan rebels, and the “Million Heroes” was put down), everybody shouted Long live Mao, read Mao's quotations; in fact, there are quite stubborn anti-Maoist forces everywhere in the country, regardless of central high-level (for example Tan Zhenlin, Chen Yi, Ye Jianying et al.), army (for example Wuhan Military Region, Qinghai Military Region and so on), magistrate and populace (for example "Million Heroes" and so on Public organizations). Mao launched the Cultural Revolution can not therefore end.
At this time the anti-Maoists probably not opposed Mao himself, but at least they did not understand and did not coordinate to Mao’s strategic plan at that time. Mao’s strategic principle and deployment were to be varying unceasingly. In fact, after Mao died, the anti-Maoists gained the authority. Many unjust cases which created because of Mao’s transformation strategy obtained the rehabiliation afterward. For example, the CCP Central Committee rehabilitated for “7.20 Incident” on November 26 , 1978.
3. The Actions Mao Changed His Tactics Like So-called “Wang, Guan and Qi Incident” and so on Are Coups
Mao and the Cultural Revolution Group always stirred up to “clutch the capitalist-roader of inner-party and inner-army”. After seizing power and establishment of "Revolutionary Committees", Liu Shao Qi and so on “capitalist-roader of inner-party” had been cleaned, but the army had not been cleaned. In early 1967, advocating by Kang Sheng, the Cultural Revolution Group wrote to Lin Biao about “clutching handful villains within the military”. Lin Biao had his own plan, just using the name of the Cultural Revolution Group to clean the military for his goal, wrote totally agree”[22]. After Wuhan“7.20 Incident” which caused chaotic in army, Lin Liguo, son of Lin Biao, using the pen name “Red Vanguard”, published articles advocating “clutch handful villains within the military” in the “Liberation Army Daily” on July 22, 1967 and the “Red Flag” magazine. Then caused chaos in the army. In the armythe number of the Generals who tormented to death, navy was the most, altogether five. In General Logistics Department, there were 133 injustice “group case”, more than 1700 people were isolated imprisons, 143 were killed. 6 Central Military Committee members among the total 11, were placed a case on file for investigation and prosecution. 106 people among the total 175 military officers above the corps level, were being discriminated against.
The Cultural Revolution has caused the popular indignation, after Wuhan “7.20 Incident”, Mao realized that the military unrest will be out of control; he immediately adjusted his strategy. Mao said in mid-August, Chen Boda, Wang Li and Guan Feng published articles inciting “clutch the capitalist-roader in army” which are “big poisonous weeds”. Lin Biao was facing the danger of trouble, Ye Qun told Lin Liguo to write a letter to Jiang Qing, explained that some viewpoints in the article of "Red Vanguard" were added by the editorial. Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing shifted the responsibility to Chen Boda. Mao treated Chen Boda inconveniently, so he knocked down several “scholars” in Central Cultural Revolution Group, Wang Li (vice-minister of CCP Central Committee International Department), Guan Feng (editor of “Red Flag” magazine, director of Central Politics Research Institute, writer of the “5.16 notice” of CCP Central Committee), Qi Benyu (chief of inquiry branch section of CCP Central Committee Staff Office, group leader of the “Red Flag" magazine editors). In fact, “Wang Li, Guan Feng and Qi Benyu” desperately encouraged the rebels fighting “capitalist roaders” for Mao, and only then Mao arranged them in the Central Cultural Revolution Group. But this time Mao knocked them down as the scapegoats for the army stability[23].
Mao was indeed inconsistent and could blow hot and clod to serve his purpose. After “Wang,Guan and Qi” had been used and then knocked down, Jiang Qing, Chen Boda, Kang Sheng and Lin Biao worried that later also will have the possibility to investigate themselves, so they need to create disturbances diverting people's attention. Lin Biao and Jiang Qing once ordered Fu Chongbi (commander of Beijing Capital Garrison) to catch Ye Jianying’s child and Deng Xiaoping's child and to do something to create trouble to grand old men of CCP, but all those things were dodged by Fu Chong Bi. On July 27, 1967, the CCP Central Committee, State Council, the Central Military Commission and the Central Cultural Revolution Group announced “A Letter to Revolutionary Masses and Extensive Military of Wuhan City”, it said “In order to solve Wuhan events, Chairman Mao and the Party Central Committee sent Representatives, Xie Fuzhi, Wang Li and Yu Lijin and so on Comrades who hold the great red flag of Mao Tse-tung Thought high, insisted on Chairman Mao's proletarian revolution route, they returned to Beijing already successfully”. On March 22 before dawn to 25th, 1968, Lin Biao held the congress of officers and soldiers of People's Liberation Army, Jiang Qing created something out of nothing criticizing Fu Chongbi leading persons to attacks the Central Cultural Revolution with guns, Fu Chong Bi's secretary had stricken her waist, and Yang Chengwu, Yu Lijin and Fu Chongbi reversed the case of “February counter current”. Lin Biao said that Yang Chengwu (Chief of the General Staff of Chinese Army) and Yu Lijin (political commissar of air force) gang up to usurp leadership of the air force and to strike down Wu Faxian (Commander of the air force and Lin Biao’s trusted follower), Yang Chengwu and Fu Chongbi want to strike down Xie Fuzhi and to edge Huang Yongsheng (Lin Biao’s trusted follower) and others out. On March 25 1:00 am, Mao issued an order to process “Yang, Yu and Fu event”, this three people were abolished the duty, and encounters the brutal persecution. This case caused a lot of people to receive persecutes, some crippled,some were killed. Lin Biao's trusted follower Huang Yongsheng was substitute for Yang Chengwu to be appointed the chief of the General Staff. After Lin Biao’s fall, in December, 1973, Mao had a lingering fear, he exchanged the post of commanders of national greater Military Regions, and Mao rehabilitated for “Yang, Yu and Fu”[24].
“Red Guards” was Mao mobilized the youth campaign, it made the “worldwide chaos” for him to overthrow Liu and so on “capitalist-roader”, but Mao did not achieve his “well governed” purpose completely, “Red Guards” had already lost the use value, Mao want abandon this already useless tool, just like he treated the “Wang, Guan and Qi” group. Mao’s method is to send out “the People's Liberation Army Mao Zedong Thought Propaganda Team” (PLA propaganda team)” and the “Worker Mao Tse-tung Thought Propaganda Team (workers propaganda team)” to enter and stay in the schools, finally lets these Red Guards get rid in rural area “accepting the poor peasant reeducation”. Mao personally set up the Great Cultural Revolution's Key Units, they were “six factories (Beijing Knitting Factory and so on six important Beijing factories) and two schools (Beijing University and Tsinghua University)”. These two schools were the “model” of the national Red Guard movement. Nie Yuanzi, who was the author of Mao praised the “national first Marxist-Leninist big-character poster” in Beijing University; Kuai Dafu in Tsinghua University who was controlled by Jiang Qing’s Central Cultural Revolution as the leader of the national “Red Guards”, not only those two were the directors of these two schools’ Revolutionary Committee, but also were Deputy Directors of Beijing Municipal Revolutionary Committee. But, in summer of 1968, these two school campuses has become a large-scale bloodshed of resorting to violence of the battlefield[25]. In Tsinghua University, the student rebels organized once together to fight Liu Shaoqi and Liu’s wife Wang Guangmei in the campus, now they splited into two factions. On April 23, 1968, these two factions nearly a thousand students in Tsinghua University campus began launch a “Hundred Days Great resorting to violence”, using spears, guns, grenades, self-made tanks and armored vehicles. On July 27, Mao sent the “Worker's Propaganda Team” to stop the violence in Tsinghua University. The rebel factions used weapons to boycott the Worker's Propaganda Team entering school. In the Worker's Propaganda Team side, 5 people of were beaten to death and 731 people were wounded. In Tsinghua University side, at least 13 people were killed and more than 400 people were wounded, more than 30 people life-long disability.[26]. The militant fight situation of other schools and other places throughout the country was the same basically. Finally the army came and then it was put down. Nie Yuanzi, Kuai Dafu and other leaders of rebels and the Red Guards not only been deprived of their position in the Revolutionary Committee, also were imprisoned. Later, Mao's military government (Revolutionary Committee) engaged in the 1968's “clean-up class ranks”" campaign; the leaders of rebels and the Red Guards in all province, were  received to shut in “bullpen”, beat cruelly , extort a confession by torture lethal, hundreds of thousands of them suicides.
Above-mentioned Cultural Revolution important actions done because of Mao’s strategy changes, ought to be a series of coups, some were bleeding, some were not bleeding.
4. “Crushing Lin Biao Group Is a Coup D'etat
Mao and his “close comrade-in-arms” Lin Biao stricken Peng down in 1959, then in the process of overthrewing Liu Shaoqi group in 1966, the two families of Mao and Lin including their wife and children formed an alliance which was in the summit during the CCP’s 9th Party Congress; the ninth party constitutions (made in the 9th Party Congress) stipulated that Lin Biao was Mao’s successor, Mao’s wife Jiang Qing and Mao’s nephew Mao Yuanxin (Mao preparation forward lets him take over, he expected originally his son Mao Anying took over, unfortunately he was killed by explosion in the North Korean battlefield, Mao’s other son had neurosis) and Lin Biao's wife Ye Qun, were appointed the important duty. But, Mao & Lin alliance has broken up very quickly.
Although the Revolutionary committees were established throughout the country Jiang Qing and Mao's cronies get the leadership, it is difficult to reach “a vast orderly community”, therefore Mao proposed a three steps strategy of the Cultural Revolution movement: the first year is to open and begin, the secound year to see prospect of a solution, set the foundation, the third year to finish[27]. Mao changed his strategy unceasingly, abandoned the Red Guards to entrust with heavy responsibility the army and the working class has subsided the civil war, after the CCP 9th Party Congress in 1969, again through “fighting , criticizing, reforming”, basically it might finish the Cultural Revolution. In March, 1969, Mao said: “the Central Cultural Revolution Group has not needed any more, it is the leadership of the Cultural Revolution. The Cultural Revolution had soon ended,it has to use the standing members of CCP Central Committee.”[28] However, Lin Biao’s influence has been formidable, it threatens Mao’s imperial authority takes-over, and it starts a bloody between Mao and Lin. Mao thought that although Jiang Qing enters Central Political Bureau, Mao Yuanxin has worked as member of the Central Committee, Lin Biao's health and age cannot endure Jiang Qing, But, Lin Biao wants to be engaged in an imperial power coming to self hands and passes on to his son, Lin Liguo. Before April of 1970, Wu Faxian, Air Force Commander and Lin Biao’s trusted fellow, gave the air force's command jurisdiction to 25 year-old Lin Liguo. Lin Liguo trained a group young military officer, set up a special panel in Air Force Headquarters office, to collect information, secret contact, afterward expanded it and is called the “United Fleets”, seized power and service for Lin Biao[29]. On May 1 evening, Lin Biao as Mao's “the most close comrade” mounted the rostrum of Tian An Men together with Mao. On May 3 evening, the “special panel” held a faithful swear oath. They successively have written “letter of allegiance” to Lin Biao and his son. Because May 13, 1967, was the day Ye Qun promotes Wu Faxian and the Li Zuopeng’s duty post, so every year on May 13 they will meet and express allegiance to Lin Biao and Ye Qun [30].
Mao won the duel with Liu Shaoqi and abolished “state president” position and “National People's Congress”, a rubber stamp. Lin Biao wanted to snatch the state president's position justifiably from Mao’s hand, and Mao’s plan of imperial authority take-over encountered Lin Biao and his son’s challnge, Mao determined that must carry on the contest with the Lin Biao group. In July of 1959, Peng Dehuai was overthrew and replaced by Lin Biao in CCP Politbureau enlarged meeting convened in Mt. Lushan. Now in August of 1970, the Second Plenary Session of the Ninth Central Committee of the CCP held again in Mt. Lushan, Mao wanted duel with Lin Biao. Lin Biao's health was difficult to accept the challenge, but he would just have to risk it, his wife and son attended the conference; Lin Biao proposed that a country must has a state president and want Mao hold the post, Lin Biao instructed Chen Boda to do the propaganda about Mao is "genius", .so it drove Mao to drastic alternatives. Mao did not let Lin Biao work as state president, but it was not easy to get rid of Lin Biao, so Mao first. punished Chen Boda. The majority local officials who attend the meeting did not understand the true situation, they discussed the national economic planning. Wu Faxian proposed the meeting must study Lin Biao's speech, Chen Boda also echoed, so many attendees agreed that the nation must has a state president. On 25th Mao convened the enlarged meeting, Mao said “Chen Boda's speech has gone against the Ninth CCP Congress,…..If you continue do as they said, I will go descend of Mt. Lushan, giving way to you. Do not mention the problem about to set up the state president again, ask me work as state president meams let me die early. whom to be insisted that let him be state president, I do not work that in any case”. Afterward it mainly criticized Chen Boda, the conference wrapped up hastily.[31] Lin Biao left Mt. Lushan filled with angrily awkwardly. In October , 1970, Lin Liguo led his “United Fleets” to develop an armed coup plan –“571 Project”. Although Lin Biao's son Lin Liguo's ability is much stronger than Mao Yuanxin, but Mao is supremacy after many years apotheosis, Mao’s Machiavellian capacity is much stronger than the Lin Biao, so Mao defeated Lin Biao group effortlessly. Mao alerted Beijing had potential dangers, he used the his common method of facing political situation accident he left Beijing seeing an opportunity to attack, on August 14, 1971, he secret goes to southward provinces and discloses to the local leaders about his plan to destroy Lin Biao group. Meanwhile, Lin Liguo has designed 8 or 9 kinds of scheme to murder Mao. Mao carefully observed his situation in his travel and always ingeniously changed his traveling schedule suddenly, so it made Lin’s murder plot become bankruptcy. Lin’s family decided to run away southern to Guangzhou, to set up a new CCP central committee. On September 12 evening, Zhou Enlai was informed from Lin‘s daughter and other places that Lin Biao intended to flee by aircraft, so the airport was controlled immediately. At zero hour on the 13th, Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Lin Liguo decided to change southern escape to north rebellion, they fled sad and anxiety, and soon because of lack of jet fuel the aircraft crashed and they died in the territory of Mongolia. Lin Biao's partisans, Huang Yongsheng (chief of the PLA general staff), Wu Fa Xian (commander of air force), Li Zuopeng (navy political commissar) and Qiu Huizuo (director of PLA General Logistics Department) were punished easily[32]. This obviously is a thrilling coup.
5. “Criticizing Lin BiaoConfucius and Zhou”, “Criticizing Deng” and “Crushing a Gang of Four” Are Coups
Under Zhou’s help, Mao easily solved the problem of Lin Biao group, but Mao’s body and mind therefore was a major blow to long to live. At this time, Mao's imperial succession conflicts was mainly to struggle with Zhou. In order to clean Lin Biao group’s influence, Mao said “Do not talk anymore abput February counter-current” and re-use the old cadres. Mao gave the army affairs to Ye Jianying, and the daily works of the CCP and central government were hosted by Zhou and Deng, Mao arranged Mao Yuanxin (his nephew) work as his liaison man to convey his instructons about the important affairs of the party and government. Zhou and Deng brought an order out of chaos of the Cultural Revolution, the natioal economy recovered slightly, and their prestige increased greatly. Mao afraid of their prestige would endanger his plan of imperial power inheriting which Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin would be succession. In order to restrict Zhou, Mao promoted Wang Hongwen, who was young and obedient, having the experience of “worker, peasant and soldier”, and unlikely to compete power with Jiang Qing. In 1973 Zhou Enlai’s disease was heavy, he suggests “reinstating” Deng. Deng was knocked down as the second “capitalist roader” of the “bourgeoisie headquarters” at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, his family members were affected and his son Deng Pufang was suffered jumps from a building to suicide not die but became disability. Deng and his family was sent to Jiangxi to reform-through-labor. Deng wrote letter to Mao many times, expressed that “use Mao Zedong Thought to reform my Bourgeois world-view diligently. For people like me, how to deal with not too much. I promise never to reverse the verdict, would not like to be an unrepentant capitalist roader.”[33] In 1973 Deng was appointed as vice-premier by Mao.
The CCP prepared the 10th National Congress in May of 1973Mao let Wang Hongwen attend the Political Bureau meeting and lead the Party Constitution Revision Group, put forward a new party constitution draft. On August 20, Mao let Zhou convey his instruction: Wang must be the director of the Elections Committee. On August 24, 1973, Mao hosted the opening ceremony of the CCP 10th National Congress, Zhou made the Politics Report, Wang made the Report of Revision Party Constitution, and Wang was the vice-president of CCP Central Committee[34].
The most powerful weapon of Mao engaged in faction fights, is to give the opposite party a “betrayer” charge. Liu Shaoqi was charged “betrayer”, so Liu was “dismiss out the CCP Party forever” in October, 1968, and secret persecuted to death in November 1969. At this time Mao not only used this way to deal with Zhou and wanted take him dead. In May of 1972, it found out Zhou has early bladder cancer, it is curable with surgery; the medical experts have written a report recommending the surgery as soon as possible. Mao arranged follows by Wang Dongxing: (1) keep it secret , not tell Zhou and his wife Deng Yingchao; (2) do not check; (3) do not operate; (4)strengthen the care and nutrition. The medical experts stressed that the treatment is urgent, did not understand Mao’s decision and wanted write directly to Mao, but it was blocked by Wang Dongxing. Then, Zhou was very busy about “forming a cabinet” and “seizing power” before “the fourth National People's Congress”, and “crushing Lin Biao Group” and so on. This time Mao and Jiang Qing have done four significant strike actions to Zhou[35].
The first, is to criticize Zhou’s “capitulationism route” at the end of 1973. In February of 1932, Shanghai “Times” newspaper published an announcement "Wuhao (Zhou Enlai's alias) and others “breaking away from the Communist”. Without doubt it was forged, moreover possibly it was forged by Mao. Immediately Mao put up a pageantry to “refute a rumour” using the name of Chinese Soviet Area Chairman, let Zhou’s reputation accepted smear, where the people could never read Shanghai newspaper. Mao used this way take Zhou under control. Zhou knew Mao’s Machiavellian and cruelty very well, had to accepts his advice and adopt his plan. Regardless of Yan'an Rectification Movement and the "Cultural Revolution", Zhou did as “attending the king, accompany a tiger”[36]. In May of 1967, Jiang Qing got the “Wuhao” materials through the Red Guards, sent it to Lin Biao, Zhou immediately wrote a letter to Mao to clarify the explanation. Mao written an ambiguous comment: “Hand over this to each comrade of members of the Cultural Revolution Group to read and save”. In October, Data Management Group of Shanghai Revolutionary Committee published the 55th issue of “Brief Report of Grasping Betrayers” which mentioned “Wuhao event”, afterwards unceasingly criticized Zhou on this account. The CCP broke with Soviet Union completely, there was a nuclear war crisis, USA showed kindness to China, Mao invited Nixon to visit China, Zhou arranged American Kissinger to visit China many times, it has improved Sino-U. S. relation , therefore Zhou’s reputation enhanced in home and abroad. Mao launched attack against Zhou many times. In June of 1973, Mao said that Zhou “unites with the bourgeoisie often forgets to struggle”, and said Zhou did not ask anyone and without authorization made the promise of China and US military cooperation with Kissinger. Many times Mao ordered to hold the Politburo enlarged meeting to criticize Zhou, said that Zhou accepted the American nuclear umbrella, Zhou is a capitulationist clique , it must “criticize capitulators”. Mao asked Tang Wensheng to convey his message “Zhou Enlai fears seriously to Soviet Union, if Soviet fight in China, he wants to serve as Soviet's puppet emperor [35]. In July of 1973, Mao and Jiang Qing talked volubly of criticizing Confucius “deny self and return to propriety”,. said that Zhou departs from the Great Cultural Revolution to practice the revisionism. Wang Hairong (Assistant of Chinese Foreign Minister, Mao's relatives) and Tang Wensheng (Mao's translator) recalled: “In November of 1973, CCP Political Bureau held a meeting to criticize Premier Zhou’s mistake talk with Kissinger, Jiang Qing suggests that this is eleventh time of route fight., and Yao Wenyuan also said to follow[37]. This Make Zhou so angry that said in patting a table at the meeting: “I, Zhou Enlai made many mistakes for a lifetime, but the Right Deviation Surrenderism's hat does not take on my head!” On June 23, 1972, Zhou was in heavy disease, said that “Wuhao event” is an enemy (not mentioned Kuomintang) to counterfeit, he wrote down and made a sound recording. When he in imminent peril before entering operating room, Zhou took the records in 1972, serious signed, and indicated that: “In the operating room, September 20, 1975”; then loudly said: "I'm not capitulators!.”[35]
The second, Mao launched a “Criticize Lin Biao, Confucius and Zhou” movement. Criticize Lin and Confucius is false and the purpose is to criticize Zhou. Because Lin was dead, Confucius is a great educator and thinker in more than two thousand years ago. Mao and Jiangqing feared that “criticize Zhou” is too explicit and undisguised, so they called it “Criticize Lin Biao and Confucius" for short. At the beginning of 1974, Mao said to Wang Hairong: “Now is the time to criticize Zhou”. Because Wang Hairong is Mao’s relative, for the special status, she record these words in her small tape recorder. After Mao died, when the Foreign Ministry criticized the "Gang of Four"Wang Hairong was investigated “anti-Premier Zhou” crimes, she had no way to extricate herself and was forced to take out the tape to play Mao’s sound “Now is the time to criticize Zhou”. The leaders of Foreign Ministry said: “Do not pursue again, the matter is this appearance.”[38] Mao and Jiang Qing launched nationally to do “criticize Lin Biao and Confucius” movement, “People's Daily” and the “Red Flag” and so on media made the essence of the movement very clear, that was to criticize Zhou. For example, on January 4, 1974, People's Daily pointed out specially: “Confucius held the post of Lu country’s judicature manager, leader of punishment and prison, and took the prime minister post”[39] The "Red Flag"of vol.4 in 1974, used the image of Confucius to curse Zhou: “71 years old, very sick in bed ... ... still desperately struggling to get up and staggered to the King of Lu country.”[40] An article in The "Red Flag" vol.10 in1974 obvious analogy Jiang Qing to the Queen who was in history inherit the throne.[41] On June 22, 1974, Jiang Qing asked a village woman in Tianjin whose family nane is Zhou, to change a name to be “Zhou Ke Zhou”, Jiang explained “we used this Zhou to struggle against that Zhou”.[42]
The third, is to criticize “empiricism”. The purpose is to cause mental pressure and to accelerate the collapse of Zhou’s body. On April 5, 1975, Jiang Qing said, “Now the biggest dange in the party is not dogmatism but is  empiricism”. According to Chen Xilian’s expose, Jiang Qing was “one by one in the Politburo to mobilize struggle against the Prime Minister Zhou”[43]. The whole nation immediately has carried out a movement which named “criticizing empiricism” actually is to criticize Zhou. On April 18, Deng used the chance of accompany Mao to meet Kim Il Sung, said to Mao: “I do not agree with this formulation about the empiricism is the current primary hazard”. Mao made comments on a report wrote by Yao Wenyuan on April 23: The formulation should propose to do against revisionism, including against empiricism and dogmatism.Both are modified Marxism, do not mention one only let another slip[44].
The fourth, is Mao lanched a movement of Judging “The Water Margin” (a Chinese classical fiction). It returned to the so-called “capitulationist clique” problem. Mao authorized to send out the No 1 documenti 1974 of the CCP Central Committee. Mao demanded the whole nation to learn “Lin Biao and the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius” which was Jiang Qing arrange to edit. Mao emphasized many times it should “take seriously to Judge “The Water Margin (other name: All Men Are Brothers)”, he said Zhou is the type of character “Song Jiang” in the story of “The Water Margin” is a capitulator. The CCP summoned that further comment “The Water Margin” and crisize capitulationists is center political task in 1976.[45].
On May 9, 1975, Zhou’s medical team leader Dr. Wu Jieping reported to CCP central that Zhou should do operation immediately. Zhang Chunqiao represented Mao to say “at present operation can not be considered”, the reason is, Zhou is general manager of party, government, military and internal affairs, others are unable to replace to do his work. The surgery question repeatedly delayed. On January 8, 1976, Zhou died of illness at the age of 76 years old. During Zhou’s long-term treatment, Mao lived near the hospital which Zhou stayed, Mao did not go to watch Zhou and also not give telephone ragards. Some people explained regarding this said Mao himself was seriously ill, but actually it is not the reason. Before New Year's Day of 1976, Mao met American former president Nixon’s daughter and the son-in-law in his studio, and in this meeting Mao said “There are 800 million population, it is not right if there has no fight”. Then, on February 21, Mao met Nixon who had left the US President post, on May 12 he met Singapore Premier Lee Kuan Yew, and on May 27, he also met Pakistani Premier Benazir Bhutto. After Zhou died, most CCP Leaders hoped that Mao participated in Zhou’s memorial service, and the medical experts also thought participating memorial will not affect Mao's health. But Mao did not go. According to Wang Dongxing saved Mao’s conversation records, Mao once said on January 12, 1976, “Why should I participate in the Prime Minister's memorial service? I still have the right not participating in! …..I have struggled with the premier no less than ten times”. At the same time, Mao ordered the people near him, not allowed to pay last respects to Zhou’s remains, and not allow wearing black armband [35].
April 5, 1976 was Qingming Festival, the Chinese tradition this day it mourns the ancestors. Nanjing, Taiyuan, Xi'an and so on regional populace mourn Zhou Enlai. At the beginning of April, Beijing populace spontaneous assembly in the Tiananmen Square every day, takes this occasion to give vent to Mao and Gang of Four's hatred. On April 4 in the square the population reaches more than 2,000,000. At 4 o'clock on the April 5, Beijing authorities (security minister Huang Guofeng) put clear to the square and give suppression. Beijing authorities determine the event as the “counter-revolutionary riot”. After Mao death, in December, 1978, the CCP rehabilitates for this “Tian'anmen event”.
After Zhou passes away, Mao and Jiang Qing changed “criticizing Zhouto “criticizing Deng”. In 1976, Mao was seriously ill but his thought is not muddled. He is determined before dying to overthrow Deng, guaranteed that his imperial authority inherits. On April 7, the CCP Political Bureau desided that the protest activities in Tiananmen is “the counter-revolutionary event”, said that Deng Xiaoping’s performance already “became the antagonism contradiction”, and passed “Resolution about appointed Hua Guofeng to be the first vice-president of CCP Central Committee, and the premier of China State Council”, and “Resolution about abolishes Deng Xiaoping’s all post of inside and outside of the Party”. The CCP organized 100,000 people in Beijing to hold congress of “the capital soldiers and civilians firmly support two resolutions of the CCP Central Committee, celebrate the victory of crushing the counter-revolutionary adverse current”. Every province and city all over the country had done like Beijing. Mao once more overthrowed Deng Xiaoping before approached his life end, paved the way for Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin to get the power of the country. Chen Xilian serves as the vice-chairman of the Central military Commission so Mao Yuanxin replaced Chen Xilian’s original post, the commander of Shenyang Military Region, to charge military and political power in Chinese Northeast. Ye Jian Ying was forced to remove off from central authority core by Mao using as an false excuse that ye was falling ill. During the period when Mao was critically ill, Mao personally selected Jiang Qing , Hua Guo Feng , Zhang Chunqiao , Wang Dongxing , Yao Wenyuan , Chen Xilian and so on to guard him and care of him, and also these were Mao selected future leading core of the CCP Central Committee. On September 9 , 1976, Mao Zedong passed away. Jiang Qing and her “gang of four” diligently plotted striving for the country supreme power, using so-called Mao’s death-bed injunction, “act according to the principles laid down”.[46] From 11th to 21st September 1976, Hua Guofeng secret contacted Ye Jianying, Li Xiannian and so on to conspire the coup d'etat. On October 6 evening, Ye Jianying, Huang Guofeng, Wang Dongxing, Li Xiannian and so on collaborated secret to seize Jiang Qing et al., Jiang Qing group was destroyed.
On September 21. Gang of Four’s faction in Shanghai's remnants distributed weapon to the militiamen, prepared to rebel. But knowing that they were in hopeless situation, and all were controlled by Beijing. Hua Guofeng had inherited Mao’s position temporarily[47].
In August, 1977, the CCP eleventh National Representative Convention convened in Beijing, it fromally announced “the Great Cultural Revolution” being over. [48]

[1] Communist Party of China Central Committee:Resolution on Centain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China. People's Publishing House, 1981
[2] Lin Biao Speech on the Eleventh session of eighth CCP plenary, Aug. 13, 1966. Edited and Pressed by The Red Guards, 1967
[3] Yu Huanchun: Disaster Began From the Publishing of the Editorial of Renmin Ribao, June 1,1966. Tong Zhou Gong Jin (Same Boat Together) 2004, vol. 6
[4] Su Shuangbi: Blasting Fuse of “Great Cultural Revolution” ,How Yao's Article "Comment on New Historical Drama ‘Hai Rui Dismissed From Office’"Published? People's Forum, 2005, vol.4
[5] Wang Youqin: Sufferers,The Correlation Between “Opposing right” and the Cultural Revolution, Take Peking University as Example.
[6] The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Document, No.55 in 1978, Organization Dept of CCP, Propaganda Dept of Central CCP, United Front Work Dept of Central CCP , the Ministry of Public Security , Ministry of Civil Affairs, “The implementation plan of extracting away all of the Rightist hat”
[7] Tang Degang:The Whole Story of Mao Zedong’s dictatorship (1949-1976). (Taiwan) Yuan-Liou Publishing Co. Ltd.2005
[8] Chairman Mao’s instruction about rescinding working teams on July 21,1966. “Long Live Mao Zedong Thought”. Edited and Pressed by The Red Guards, 1966. page 645
[9] Chairman Mao’s instruction about rescinding working teams on July 21,1966. “Long Live Mao Zedong Thought”. Edited and Pressed by The Red Guards, 1966. page 637
[10] “On March 20, Maol speech in enlarged meeting. Yan Jiaqi, Gao Gao:“Ten Year History of Great Cultural Revolution”. Hong Kong Wannianqing Books Center, vol.1, page26
[11] Chen Donglin, Miao Di, Li Danhui: China's Cultural Revolution Dictionaries "(Japanese), China Bookstore (Fukuoka, Japan) Publishing, 1997
[12] September 5, 1966, The central Great Cultural Revolution group "Bulletin", “Shatters to pieces the Old World, Red Guard Got Countless Victory in a Half Month”. From Wang Youqin "The Great Cultural Revolution Victim", Hong Kong Open Magazine Publishing House, 2004.
[13] Ding Shu: A Single opinion about the casualty in Cultural Revolution "Hua Xia Wen Zhai Supplement" Great Cultural Revolution Museum Communication, Vol. 209
[14] Xu Dongliang: Story about Chen Boda made “Injustice Case in East Hebei Province”. "File World". 2006 Vol.6
[15] Shi Dongbing: Premier Zhou in the Great Cultural Revolution. Great Cultural Revolution on-the-Spot Report Series - Shi Dongbing Anthology. (Inner Mongolia) Yuanfang Publishing House 2007
[16] “Criticize Peng Zhen " April 28 , 1966. “Long Live Mao Zedong Thought”. Edited and Pressed by The Red Guards, 1967. page 641
[17] October 25, 1966, Chairman Mao's speech at the central work conference, "Long Live Mao Zedong Thought," Edited and Pressed by The Red Guards, 1967. page 658
[18] Zhao Junfang, Ji Xichen: “China: Record Event in 1967 "February Countercurrent”. ChunFeng Literature and Art Press (Liaoning), 1986
[19] Wang Nianyi, He Shu, Chen Zhao: “Lin Biao Is a Special Tide-Watcher and Peripatetics in the “Great Cultural Revolution”. In  Ding Kaiwen "Retries Lin Biao’s Criminal Case", Hong Kong Bright Mirror Publishing House, 2009
[20] Chen Zaidao: The Beginning and End of Wuhan “7·20 Event”. “Hubei Historical Accounts of Past Events”. 2002, Vol. 3
[21] Wang Li: "Wang Li’s Resonsideration Records " Hong Kong North Star Press, 2001
[22] Yan Zhifeng: The Beginning and end of the Dsturbance “Clutch a Handful Villains in the Army”. "Party History Vertically and Horizontally". 2005, Vol. 9
[23] Yang Yongxing : Riddle of Being Knocked Down of “Wang, Guan and Qi“. “Literature and History World”. 2010, vol. 1
[24] Shu Yun: Fu Chongbi and “Yang Yu and Fu Event”. "Party History and Reading Extensively". 2006, Vol.9
[25] Shitu Wen: I knew Beijing University’s “Resort to Violence. "Literature and History Essence".2009, Vol.7
[26] Shen Ruhuai: Cultural Revolution Record Event in Tsing Hua University: A Red Guard Leader's Account in One's Own Words. Hong Kong Times Art Press 2004
[27] Zhang Hua. Su Caiqing: Looks back on “the Great Cultural Revolution” (vol. 1). Chinese Communist Party History Publishing House (Beijing), 2000
[28] The Record of Mao Zedong talks with the Central Cultural Revolution Group Members, on March 3, 1969. Zhen Yan: Comrade Mao Zedong in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Great Cultural Revolution network material downloading
[29] Shao Yihai: Destruction of the “United Fleets” (Lin Biao Gang's Destruction) (Beijing) Spring and Autumn Period Publishing House, 1988
[30] Wu FaXian : Wu FaXian’s Reminiscences. Hong Kong North Star Pess. 2007
[31] Jia Zhangwang: “Mao Zedong, From Shaoshan to Zhongnanhai”. Chinese Literature and History Publishing House. 2007
[32] Shao Yihai : The Beginning and End of Lin Biao’s “9.13 Event”. Sichuan Literature and Art Press, 1996
[33] Deng Xiaoping: "My Account in Own Words". June 20 to July 5,1967. see the editorial of “People's Daily” on March 10 , 1976, “Reverse a CaseWill not Get Popular Support”
[34] News Announcement of the Tenth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. “People's Daily”. August 29, 1973.
[35] Gao Wenqian: Zhou Enlai’s Later Years" , Hong Kong Bright Mirror Press. 2003
[36] Jung Chang & Jon Halliday: “Mao: The Unknown Story”. London :Jonathan Cape, 2005
[37] Lu Di: Bankruptcy of Jiang Qing’s Plot of “the 11th Struggle Between Two Lines”. Fujian Party History Monthly Publication. 2003 , Vol. 7
[38] Lin Qingshan: Disillusioned of the Cabinet Dream of “Gang of Four," "Mao Zedong Thought Research" 1988, vol. 3
[39] Tang Xiaowen : “How to Explaine that Confucius Kills Shao Zhengmao ?”  People's Daily, January 4 , 1974
[40] Great Criticizin Group of Beijing University and Tsinghua University: “What Kind of Person Is Confucius”. The Red Flag, 1974,vol.4 .
[41] Liang Xiao, "Study the historical experience of struggle against Confucianism". The Red Flag, 1974,vol.10
[42] Chen Dabin : Farce of Jiang Qing in Xiao Jin Village of Tianjin. Hundred Year Tide. 2007, vol.3
[43] Chen Xilian Talks About the Crime of "Gang of Four" Counterrevolution Clique. CCP Central Two Case (Lin Biao Group and Jiang Qing Group Cases ) Materials, August 16, 1980
[44] Si Fu: Inside Information of Mao Zedong Suggested “Three to and Three not to” In "the Cultural Revolution". Party History Reading. 2003, vol.10
[45]  Joint New Year editorial of "People's Daily", "Red Flag" Magazine and "Liberation Army Daily": Nothing Is Difficult to the Man Who Will Try". January 1,1966
[46] Liang Xiao: Forever Act According to the Principles Laid Down by Chairman Mao. "Guangming Daily". October 4, 1976
[47] Chief Editor: Jiang Yi, Shao Youmin: The Destruction of “Gang of Four” in Shanghai Remnants. History Data of the CCP Shanghai Party. Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Publishes 2001
[48] News Announcement of the CCP eleventh National Representative Convention. August 18 , 1977

[摘要] 从毛泽东在1966年开开始发动“无产阶级文化大革命”,到1977年中共第十一次全国代表大会正式宣布文化大革命结束,时间长达10年的中国大动乱,被邓小平称为“十年浩劫”。无论文革的发动,还是文革期间毛改换运动进行的策略转变中的夺权与反夺权、大规模武斗以及官员撤换等过程,以及毛死后所谓“粉碎四人帮”、文革结束的过程,从其发生的原因、发生的现象和后果来分析,这些都是属于一系列“变”,也就是说,中国十年的文革过程是一系列流血的和不流血的变构成的大动乱
文化大革命应该从何时算起? 毛曾说过,文化大革命是从姚文元的文章发表开始的[3]。这是没有疑义的。姚文元的文章其实是早在1965毛派江青到上海找到张春桥和姚文元起草,毛修改定稿,19651110上海《文汇报)发表姚文元的文章《评新编历史剧〈海瑞罢官〉》[4]。毛与刘的分歧是从1956年中共八大开始的,从此时就想用他惯用的拉一派打一派的手法,利用他的巨大威望,拉拢党外人士进行整党对刘进行打击,不料这些人士和知识分子到毛自己头上了,毛于反过来拉拢邓小平和刘少奇,把这些人打成右派分子,至少有55万人受到无情打击,其中不少人被迫害致死;这些人的家属几乎同样受迫害,不包括在该数目内[56]。彭德怀不满毛搞的大跃进”“人民公社”“土法炼铁等造成饿死约四千万农民,1959年毛又拉拢刘少奇和林彪,把彭打倒。19622月中共政治局扩大会议(七千人大会)毛打算与刘彻底决裂,但是时机还不成熟,毛发动社会主义教育运动,也叫四清运动(清工分,清帐目,清仓库和清财物),四清是虚,搞阶级斗争是实,实际上是毛发动文革的一场预演。
的原始计划的第一步,是先把这一运动,披上一层文化的外衣,批判历史剧《海瑞罢官》,揪出北京副市长吴晗。他既是历史家,又是文艺家,中共官僚,以发动这个「文革M运动」。从吴晗再扩大至所谓「三家村」,再升级鼓励各大中学革M师生,向各学校、各单位的领导和「当权派」夺权、并乘机拿下陆定一把持的中宣部、中央文化部。第二步,夺取那个被彭真所盘据的、「针插不进,水滴不透」的北京市委(彭真是当时的北京市第一书记,兼北京市长),由邓拓总编的「人民日报」和广播电。第三步掌握好了北京这个根本重地,然后再循党的既定程序,通过政治局和人民大会,来把刘奇隔离审查,如此,达到毛的天下大治了[7] 毛说:凡是在中央有人搞鬼,我就号召地方起来攻他们,叫孙悟空大闹天宫,并要搞那些保「玉皇大帝」的人。彭真是混到党内的渺小人物,没有什么了不起。(我)一个指头就捅倒他[16]
全国大规模武斗的简介。19661230日,王洪文代理十多万造反派围攻另外一派(地点是上海市委所在地康平路)夺权武斗流血事件,这是全国派系武斗的开端。张春桥说:我们打电话叫造反派赶快参加战斗。这次较量是个转折点196768月,中央文革小组煽动造反派成立揪刘(少奇)火线、万人围困中南海,1967620日后重庆、湖南、江西及各地出现派系武斗夺权,双都死了人。毛对于武斗夺权事件予以纵容,这是全国发生大规模武斗的根本原因,1967714日毛南巡对杨成武、汪东兴、郑维山说:我看湖南、江西九江、南昌、庐山、赣州经过大武斗,形势大好,阵线也分明了。718毛在武汉对周恩来、王力等人说:我看要把他们(工人、学生)武装起来。毛批示对于群众抢枪的事,不必看得过于严重[19]。有些地方部队向他们所支持的一派发枪。于是全国大规模武斗内战全面展开。现在中共发表的有关文革武斗的文章都是使有些地方造反派抢夺军队的武器,实际上没有毛的许可,谁敢抢夺?720发生武汉事件 是个的典型,是震惊世界的大事。全国各地都发生大规模死人的武斗,情况都与武汉的情况大同小异。
武汉造反派分化为两派,工总派是反武汉军区(陈再道是军区司令员,不大支持打倒刘少奇),百万雄师保武汉军区。19672工总等夺了长江日报的权。321武汉军区宣布工总为反动组织,并逮捕了工总大小头目。江青等警告武汉军区。武汉军区被迫释放了工总头目,但不平反。毛决定亲自到武汉解决问题。714日毛、周恩来、谢富治、王力等到达武汉。周恩来在武汉宣布毛的指示:武汉军区错了,为工总平反,百万雄师是保守组织。人数大大超过工总的百万雄师不服,20日凌晨,百万雄师50多辆车冲进军区,批斗并打伤了中央文革的王力。军区将王力转移走后。10点,上千车辆数万人武装游行,满街揪出谢富治、打倒王力口号。武汉全市工厂停工,交通中断,重伤三人,打死一人。19日已经离武汉的周恩来20日返武汉,安排毛(此时他处于孤立并有生命危险的境地,他本来从不坐飞机)于21日凌晨匆忙逃离武汉飞到上海。武汉21日近千辆车继续武装游行。22日周恩来、谢富治、王力等回到北京。当晚,林彪主持中央文革会议,把“7·20事件定为反革命事件 同日《人民日报》发表《从政治上思想上彻底打倒党内一小撮走资本主义道路当权派》,提出揪军内一小撮打倒带枪的刘邓路线725,天安门广场举行了百万军民欢迎中央代表团归来的大会。全国各地都举行示威游行声援武汉造反派。726,经毛批准,武汉军区被迫发表的《公告》说:“7·20事件是反毛、反党、反文革的叛变行为、陈再道罪责难逃727,中共中央、国务院、中央军委、中央文革小组发表《给武汉市革命群众和广大指战员的一封信》,支持造反派。中共军队元帅徐向前、大将徐海东等被指控为“7·20事件后台,遭到抄家。据湖北省委统计,“7·20事件之后,全省被打死的干部、军人和群众多达18.4万多人。仅武汉市,打伤打残者6.6万人,打死600多人 [2021]
毛发动起来的红卫兵运动,为他制造天下大乱打倒刘等走资派立下了功劳,毛还没有完全达到他天下大治的目的,但是红卫兵已经失去了利用价值,毛也要象对王、关、戚一样,抛弃“红卫兵”这个已经无用的工具;方法是利用军队军队三支两军和派出解放军毛泽东思想宣传队(军宣队)工人毛泽东思想宣传队(工宣队)进驻学校,最后让这些红卫兵去农村接受贫下中农再教育。毛亲自抓文革的重点单位是六厂二校北京针织总厂等六个北京的大工厂和北京大学、清华大学两个学校。这二校的全国红卫兵运动的样板。毛表扬的全国第一张马列主义的大字报的作者北京大学聂元梓,中央文革小组捧起来的具有全国红卫兵领袖地位的大红人清华大学蒯大富,他们不仅是二校革命委员会主任,而且是北京市革命委员会副主任和常委。可是1968年夏,二校的校园内成为了大规模流血武斗的战场。[25]清华大学曾经在校园内共同斗刘少奇王光美的学生造反派组织分裂成两派, 1968423日开始双方近千个学生在校园内用长矛、枪、炮、手榴弹、自造坦克、装甲车,展开了百日大武斗727日,毛派工宣队进入清华大学制止武斗。造反派用武器抵制工宣队进校。工宣队方面5人被打死,731人受伤。清华大学方面总共至少13人死亡,400多人受伤,30余人终生残疾。[26]全国其他学校和其他地方的武斗情况基本上都如此,最后军队来才镇压下去。聂元梓、蒯大富等造反派和红卫兵大红人不仅被剥夺了他们在革命委员会的职务,还被关进监狱。后来,毛的军政府(革命委员会)搞了1968年的清理阶级队伍的运动,几乎在所有的省份造反派的头头都进了牛棚,毒打、刑讯逼供致死,自杀者有几十万之众。
虽然全国都成立了革命委员会,江青和毛的亲信取得领导权,还难以达到天下大治,于是毛提出了文革运动三步走的战略:一年开张,二年看眉目,定下基础,三年收尾[27]。毛不断改换策略,抛弃红卫兵重用军队和工人阶级平息了内战,1969年中共九大后,再经过斗、批、改,按道理文革运动基本上可以结束了。19693月,毛说:中央文革不要了,是管文化革命的。文化革命快要结束了,用常委。[28] 是,林彪势力强大了,威胁到毛皇权接班的计划,一场血腥的毛、林之斗又开始了。毛认为虽然江青进入中央政治局,毛远新当上了中央委员,林彪的健康状况和年龄熬不过江青。但是,林彪想把皇权搞到手并且传给自己的儿子林立果19704月前,林彪的亲信空军司令吴法宪把空军的指挥权交给25岁的林立果。林立果将一帮青年军官在空军司令部办公室构成特别小组,搜集情报、秘密联络,后来扩大称为联合舰队,为林彪夺权服务[29]51日晚,林彪作为毛的最亲密战友一起登上了天安门城楼。53日晚,特别小组开了一个表忠宣誓。此后他们先后向林彪父子写了效忠信。因为1967513日,是叶群提拔吴法宪和李作鹏职务的日子;每年513日他们都搞活动,向林彪、叶群表示效忠[30]
在周的帮助下,毛轻易解决了林彪集团的问题,可是毛的身心因此受到巨大打击,来日不多了。此时,毛的皇权继承问题的矛盾主要是周了。为了清洗林彪集团的影响,毛说不要再讲二月逆流,重新用老干部。毛泽东把军队交给叶剑英,中央的日常工作由周、邓主持,安排毛远新(毛的侄子)作自己的联络员,党政要事都通过毛远新来转达。周、邓对文革拨乱反正,经济稍有恢复,威望大增。毛怕周、邓危及毛要江青、毛远新接班的计划。为了制约周,毛一手提拔了王洪文,王年轻,有工农兵的经历,听话,不大可能与江青争权。1973年周恩来病重要而建议起用邓。邓是文革初资产阶级司令部的第二号走资派被打倒,全家受株连,儿子邓朴方被折磨得跳楼自杀未死,而成残疾。邓全家被下放到江西劳动改造。邓多次写信向毛表示努力用毛泽东思想改造我的资产阶级世界观。对我这样的人,怎样处理都不过分。我保证永不翻案,绝不愿作一个死不悔改的走资派[33] 1973年邓被任命为副总理。
第一次是1973年底批周的投降主义路线19322月上海《时报》、《申报》上,刊登了伍豪(周恩来的化名)等人脱离共产党的启事。无疑是伪造的,而且可能是毛伪造的。毛即以苏区主席名义发布告辟谣,事态扩散到根本看不到上海报纸的苏区,使周的名声受到玷污。毛以此将周制服。深知毛玩弄权术的厉害,对他言听计从,无论延安整风和文化大革命,他都伴君伴虎 [36] 19675月江青将红卫兵的伍豪等材料送林彪,周立即致信毛澄清说明。毛批示:交文革小组各同志阅存,模棱两可。10月上海革委会材料组《抓叛徒简报》第55期提伍豪启事,以后不断以此批周。中共与苏联彻底闹翻,存在核战争危机,美国向中国示好,毛邀请尼克松访华,周安排美国基辛格多次访华,改善了中美关系,周在国内外的声誉好高。毛多次向周发难。19736月毛说周与资产阶级联合常忘掉斗争说周没有请示就擅自向基辛格做了中美进行军事合作的承诺;毛下令开政治局扩大会议多次批周,说周恩来接受美国的核保护伞,周是投降派、要批投降派毛让唐闻生传话说:周恩来对苏联怕得不得了,如果他们打进来了,他要当苏联人的儿皇帝。”[35]  7毛和江青大讲孔子克己要复周礼说周背离文革搞修正主义。王海容外交部部长助理,毛的亲戚和唐闻生(翻译)回忆:“197311月,在政治局批评周总理同基辛格会谈中犯错误的会议上,江青提出这是第十一次路线斗争,姚文元也跟着这样说 [37] 为此气得周在会上拍桌子说:我周恩来一辈子犯过很多错误,可是右倾投降主义的帽子扣不到我的头上!1972623,病重的周再次讲清楚伍豪启事是敌人(没有说国民党)伪造,写下文字记录并录音。1975年周生命垂危进手术室前,再次取来1972年的记录,认真签名,并注明:于进入手术室,1975920;而后大声说我不是投降派!” [35]
第二次是毛发动批林批孔批周公,批孔(两千多年前的孔子,即孔丘、孔老二,教育家、思想家)是假,林彪已死,目的是批周。他们怕批周公太露骨而简称批林批孔1974年初,毛王海容说:现在是到批周公的时候了。因王海容是毛的亲戚,特殊身份,她的小录音机录下了这段话。毛死后,外交部批四人帮时追究她反周总理罪行,王海容无法解脱时,只好拿出该录音带放出毛声音现在是到批周公的时候了。外交部的领导说:不要再追了,事情就是这个样子。[38] 毛和江青发动全国搞批林批孔运动,江青利用《人民日报》、《红旗》等媒体把搞批林批孔运动的实质是批周说得十分清楚。例如197414日,《人民日报》特意指出:孔丘担任了鲁国管理司法、刑狱的司冠,并代行宰相职务[39] 1974年第四期《红旗》用孔子的形象骂周:七十一岁,重病在床……还拼命挣扎着爬起来摇摇晃晃地去朝见[40] 197410《红旗》《研究儒法斗争的历史经验》的文章公开把江青比喻历史上继承王位(刘邦比喻毛)的皇后(吕后)[41]1974622日,江青在天津小靳庄要一个姓周的妇女改名:你就叫周克周吧!用咱们这,克制他那个[42]
第三次是批经验主义。其目的给周造成精神压力加速其身体崩溃。197545日江青说党内现在的最大的危险不是教条主义而是经验主义 据陈锡联揭发,江青在政治局一个一个动员反总理。[43] 全国开展以批经验主义实为批周的运动。418日邓利用陪毛会见金日成的机会对毛说:我不同意关于经验主义是当前主要危险的提法。毛在423日在姚文元一份报告上批示:提法似应提反对修正主义,包括反对经验主义和教条主义,二者都是修正马列主义的,不要只提一项,放过另一项[44]

[2] 林彪同志在八届十一中全会上的讲话,19668 13日。红卫兵编辑出版,1967
[3] 余焕椿:“《横扫》出笼日 灾难降临时--人民日报六.一社论出笼前后”。《同舟共济》2004年第6
[4] 苏双碧:文化大革命的导火线《评新编历史剧<海瑞罢官>》出笼前后。《人民论坛》2005年第四期
[6] 中共中央文件 中发[1978]55号批准中共中央组织部、中共中央宣传部、中共中央统战部、公安部、民政部贯彻中央关于全部摘掉右派分子帽子决定的实施方案]
[7] 唐德刚:毛澤東專政始末1949-1976](台湾)遠流出版事業股份有限公司2005
[8] 毛主席一九六六年七月二十一日对撤工作组的指示。毛泽东思想万岁。红卫兵编辑出版,1967年,645
[9] 毛主席一九六六年七月二十一日对撤工作组的指示。毛泽东思想万岁。红卫兵编辑出版,1967年,637
[10] 严家其、高皋「文革十年史」1989年,香港万年青图书中心,卷一,26
[11] 陈东林、苗棣、李丹慧主编,《中国文化大革命事典》(日文版),中国书店(日本福冈市)出版,1997年。
[12] 中央文革小组《简报》〈把旧世界打得落花流水,红卫兵半个月来战果累累〉196695,转摘自王友琴《文革受难者》,香港开放杂志出版社,2004
[13] 丁抒:文革死亡人数的一家之言《华夏文摘增刊》·文革博物馆通讯(二九)期
[14] 许东亮:陈伯达制造冀东大冤案的来龙去脉《档案天地》200606
[15] 师东兵:周总理在文革中. 文化大革命纪实系列师东兵文集. (内蒙古)远方出版社2007
[16] 《批判彭真》1966428),载毛泽东思想万岁。红卫兵编辑出版,1967. 641页。
[17] 19661025,毛主席在中央工会议上的讲话,载「毛泽东思想万岁」红卫兵编辑出版,1967. 658
[18] 赵峻防, 纪希晨著:《中国:1967年纪事二月逆流 (辽宁)春风文艺出版社1986
[19] 王年一、何蜀、陈昭:林彪是文化大革命中特殊的观潮派、逍遥派。摘自丁凯文主编《重审林彪罪案》香港明镜出版社,2009
[20] 陈再道:武汉·0事件始末。《湖北文史资料》 2002年第3
[21] 王力:《王力反思录》香港北星出版社2001
[22] 闫志峰:揪军内一小撮风波始末。《党史纵横》20059
[23] 杨永兴:王、关、戚被打倒之谜,《文史天地》 2010年第1
[24] 舒云:傅崇碧和杨余傅事件。《党史博览》 2006年第09
[25] 司徒文:我所知道的北大武斗《文史精华》2009年第7
[26] 沈如槐:清华大学文革纪事:一个红卫兵领袖的自述。香港时代艺术出版社2004
[27] 张化,苏采青. 回首文革(上册).北京:中共党史出版社,2000548
[28] 毛泽东同中央文革碰头会成员谈话记录,196933甄岩:毛泽东同志在无产阶级文化大革命中文革网下載
[29 ] 邵一海联合舰队的覆灭(林彪团伙的覆灭)(北京)春秋出版社,1988
[30] 吴法宪:吴法宪回忆录(上下)香港北星出版社2007
[31] 贾章旺:《毛泽东从韶山到中南海》中国文史出版社2007
[32] 邵一海:林彪9.13事件始末。四川文艺出版社1996
[33] 196762075邓小平《我的自述》,主要内容见1976310《人民日报》社论《翻案不得人心》
[34] 中国共产党第十次全国代表大会新闻公报。1973829人民日报
[35] 高文谦:《晚年周恩来》,香港明镜出版社2003
[36] 张戎,乔恩海利德伊合著《毛,鲜为人知的故事》乔纳森凯普出版社 2005
[37] 卢荻:江青炮制第十一次路线斗争阴谋的破产。福建党史月刊2003年第7
[38] 林青山:《四人帮组阁梦的破灭》,《毛泽东思想研究》19889月第3
[39] 唐晓文:《孔子杀少正卯说明了什么》197414,《人民日报》
[40] 北京大学、清华大学大批判组《孔丘其人》1974年第四期《红旗》
[41] 梁效《研究儒法斗争的历史经验》《红旗》197410
[42] 陈大斌:江青在小靳庄的闹剧:与农民的同住前先消毒《百年潮》2007年第3
[43] 陈锡联谈四人帮反革命阴谋集团罪行,转引自中央两案材料,1980816
[44] 斯夫:文革中毛泽东提出三要三不要内情。党史博览2003年第10
[45]《人民日报》、《红旗》杂志、《解放军报》1976年联合元旦社论《世上无难事 只要肯登攀》
[46] 梁效:永远按毛主席的既定方针办。《光明日报》1976104
[47] 江怡, 邵有民主编:"四人帮"在上海余党的覆灭. 中共上海党志. 上海社会科学院出版2001
[48] 中国共产党第十一次全国代表大会新闻公报1977818