Monday, October 31, 2011

Pakistan Must Be Given A Timeout

Maybe not even a timeout. 

The lead article in the New York Times earlier this morning was Secretary of State Clinton’s announcement of a new strategy for bringing peace to Afghanistan.

“Fight, Talk, Build” is the official name of this worthy initiative—I did not make that up—which slogan we predict will be proved to bore holes in your skull and infect your brain with microorganisms which will result in irreversible cognitive deficits.

F.T.B.’s paradigm-breaking advance is to enlist the assistance of America’s good friends in Inter-Services Intelligence (I.S.I.), Pakistan’s spook agency.  This is the same spook agency that the Obama administration blamed last month for deadly attacks on Americans going back to at least 2007.

I guess this is a dance with the devil. Governments do that, right? When have they done that?  Did the Americans—and the Israelis--dance with Yasser Arafat and the P.L.O., simultaneously fighting and talking?  I guess.  How did that work out?  It doesn’t seem to me it worked out very well at all.  I guess reasonable people can differ.

Or is this “good cop, bad cop” on the Americans’ part?  Or the ascendancy of the State Department over the military and the other more hawkish elements in the administration who leaked last month’s stories? 

I don’t know; it’s the most confounded thing.  

Happy Halloween

To Pakistanis, Wall Street protesters, Southeast Asian Uplanders, ungovernable people everywhere. 

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Weimin Mo Paints the Soul

These are some recent paintings by the Chinese-American artist Weimin Mo.  Above is Darrell, I would have guessed a foreman but he's a singer.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011


It is manifest destiny. I go to Kiribati.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Tunisia 2.0

The Tunas have held an election, and for that they should receive unqualified praise.

Unqualified praise.

What have they chosen?  According to the New York Times it is a "moderate Islamist" party, Ennahda, that won a plurality, 40%, of the vote. "Moderate Islamist:"  isn't that an oxymoron? According to Wikipedia "Islamist" is pretty closely interchangeable with "activist Islam," "militant Islam," or "political Islam."  It is a:

"set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only a religion but a political system and that modern Muslims must return to the roots of their religion by uniting politically against non-Muslims."

That is exactly how Public Occurrences defines modern Islam "as it is practiced and preached today."

That is not moderate.

Tunas, you have chosen. Congratulations. Public Occurrences looks forward to obliterating you.

You're welcome. 

Earthquake in Turkey

More than 360 dead, but not that little one by the looks of it. The expressions on the faces of the female rescue workers are so loving and caring.

The quake and aftershocks hit over the weekend; 1300 are injured.

Take care of that baby. 

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Sports Occurrences

Manchester is the fifth largest city in England.  With 441,000 people it is the same size as Mesa, Arizona, America’s 38th largest city, slightly smaller than Chaozhou, China’s 144th largest, four times the population of the Republic of Kiribati.

The English invented the game of soccer, the world’s most popular sport, but it is a Manchester, not a London, Birmingham, Liverpool or Leeds, club that has for decades been the greatest and most famous in the world. “The World’s Greatest Club” trademark is owned by Manchester United.  Its manager is knighted, Sir Alex Ferguson.

Manchester is also home to another soccer club, Manchester City.  At their closest point the properties of the two clubs are one-eighth of a mile apart.  Manchester City has long toiled literally and figuratively in United’s shadow.

That has changed.

The beginning of what was then called the “Manchester Revolution” occurred in 2007 when billionaire former Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra bought the club. When Shinawatra sold in 2008 it was to a fellow billionaire, Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, a 32-year old member of the ruling family of Abu Dhabi.  Sheikh Mansour has transformed Manchester City into “the world’s most hated club.” 

Hated, because Sheikh Mansour has poured vast sums into player acquisition that has enabled City to challenge the best clubs in England.  Last season City broke into the so-called “Big Four” of United, Liverpool, and London-based Chelsea and Arsenal, finishing third in the English Premier League, supplanting Arsenal, and qualifying for the lucrative and prestigious pan-European Champions League competition. At the end of the season City also beat United to win the Football Association (FA) Cup, the most coveted trophy in English football. City finished some distance from United in the Premier League however.United won the league for a record 19th time.

Today, Manchester City and Manchester United played the first of their two “derbies,” intra-city games, in the Premier League. Sir Alex Ferguson called it the “biggest” derby in history and it was played at United’s Old Trafford grounds.  Said Ferguson after the game, "I'm shattered, I can't believe it":

Manchester City 6
Manchester United 1

Friday, October 21, 2011

Qaddafi Killed

On the evidence it seems more likely that Col. Qaddafi was executed while in custody of the Libyan rebels rather than having been killed in "crossfire," as is, or was, the Libyan interim government's account. In the judgment here, an execution is not an unreasonable response under the circumstances. 

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Qaddafi Killed

Muammar el-Qaddafi, dictator of Libya for forty-two years, was killed today in his hometown of Kurt by Libyan rebels, the Libyan interim government announced.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Protests on Wall Street


...Uh-huh it...



Tuesday, October 18, 2011



Unpopular Posts

Will the person who visited this-here blog yesterday from the Republic of Kiribati please email me (Now watch, I'll get an email from somebody in Manhattan who creates a Republic of Kiribati email address.):

Benjamin Harris

Other visitors have come from the following inn-teresting places recently:

-Bosnia and Herzegovina
-Sri Lanka
-Saudi Arabia

Top Ten Countries by pageviews:

-South Korea

Unpopular posts recently visited:

-"China's Eichmann's Defense Law," December 19, 2007:

-"A Million Drops of Blood," April 4, 2009:

-"Dr. Wang Rongfen's Punking of Carma Hinton," February 8, 2008:

-"Ward Churchill," July 25, 2007:

-"True Crime Stories: Blanket Party," September 14, 2006:

Search keywords:


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Image: "I think monsters are the most inn-teresting people.  Monsters have the most inn-teresting lives.  Oh the places you must go and the people you must meet, my stars."

Friday, October 14, 2011


Is this some Jewish thing?

-Simon Garfield
-Edward Mendelson

The latest tranche (a troika) of books received from Barnes and Noble included The Shadow of a Great Rock by Professor Harold Bloom of Yale. (Professor Bloom keeps promising that whatever is his latest book will be his last. (He keeps breaking his promise.))  Professor Bloom uses something called “Stempel Schneidler” font in this book.

-Harold Bloom

There’s some Freudian thing going on here too. Mendelson says he became obsessed with fonts when his wife got pregnant. Garfield has the look in the eye of someone who has taken too many amphetamines, and Bloom’s gifts to humankind include The Story of J, wherein he posits the psychologically revealing hypothesis that parts of the Bible were written by a woman.  

To be a Jewish male in America is to be female dominated and sexually frustrated.

“What’s Jewish foreplay?”  “Twenty minutes of begging.”  (ba-da-boom)
“How do Jewish women get crows feet around their eyes?”  “You want me to suck whaaat?”

In this female superior position the Jewish male writhes in the agonies of impotence.  Here’s the first instance in Bloom’s latest (last?) book where the reader encounters the distinctiveness of the S.S. font:

What is that thing at the end of the sentence, Sanscrit?  Hebrew?

No, it’s the medical symbol for male impotence:

Soft, shriveled, limp.

Compare with the symbol for virility:

Strong, straight, erect.

Harold Bloom, Edward Mendelson, and Simon Garfield reduce discourse to the level of infantile goo-goo, gah-gah, genital-pointing obsession. They impoverish the attainments of human civilization. They need to stop writing until they visit a whore house.

Image: Harold Bloom in dramatic ecstasy.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

What a Wonderful World: Yo-Yo Ma and Lil Buck.

"The Dying Swan" by the cellist and a young Los Angeles based dancer.  The Chinese-American painter Weimin Mo sent the link in an email with the title "I'm afraid we have to redefine the arts."  Truly wonderful:

Protests on Wall Street (1)

Egyptians have invaded Wall Street.

For a couple of weeks people have been occupying Wall Street and protesting.  And the economy is as good a reason to protest as any other.  What do our fellow American homo sapiens want?  Ahh, see.  "What do we want?  Don't know.  When do we want it? Nowww."  

Paul Krugman supports the protests but admits they have no focus (Mr. Krugman volunteers to give them advice on that (Mr. Krugman is never short of advice)).

First they jump, then we think.

(1)  An image containing a word requiring the use of asterisks, does not constitute the use of a word requiring the use of asterisks by the person publishing the image.  

Bomb, bomb, bomb; bomb, bomb Iran.

No shortage of casus belli for America right now: Pakistan, and yesterday the FBI broke up an Iranian government's plot to off the Saudi Ambassador to the U.S.  Boy, the enemy Iranians trying to murder an enemy Saudi: tough call that.  If the hit hadn't been intended in the U.S. and on the ambassador to the U.S.  But it was and it did so I would send the cruise missiles Tehran-bound.  I don't think President Obama will. 

Monday, October 10, 2011

The Survivor

There's a new biography out on Deng Xiaoping by Professor Ezra F.Vogel of Harvard.

Mao purged Deng twice (Deng really got under Mao’s skin).  Near the end of Mao’s Great Leap debacle Deng used a metaphor to express his own approach to economics:  "I don't care if it's a white cat or a black cat as long as it catches mice." (1)  When Mao launched the Cultural Revolution Deng was pilloried with that quote. Down went Deng. Mao banished him to internal exile where he spent four years working in a tractor factory. Then Mao brought him back and made him Vice Premier. Didn’t last long. The radicals, led by Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, opposed Deng. Down went Deng again.

When Mao died in 1976 back came Deng.  The radicals, now known as the “Gang of Four,” went down. Deng became the de facto paramount leader of China. In 1989 Deng approved the use of deadly force by the PLA to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters. In 1992 in his fairwell “Southern Tour” Deng stated “to be rich is glorious.”  The cat was not red, whatever color capitalist cats are. Deng retired and lived out his life a recluse according to Henry Kissinger.

If, as contended here, China's soul is survival then Deng Xiaoping instantiates China’s soul. Deng survived. He not only survived, he came out on top.

(1) It may have been “yellow cat or black cat.” Whatever, the only color that mattered to Mao was red and red mattered a great deal to Mao. 

Continuing our popular series on constabulary occurrences, an individual of the male persuasion was arrested for throwing a hot dog at American golfer Tiger Woods.  The incident occurred under the following circumstances as described by a credible eye witness:

"How weird was that," said Arjun Atwal, one of the other players in Woods' group. "That guy could have been shot the way he ran out there with that hot dog. The cops could have thought it was something else. The hot dog flew across Tiger's (putting) line and onto my line. The bun kind of fell at his feet. It was the weirdest thing I've ever seen."

According to statutory research done by peace officers on the scene of the peaceful golf course the offense allegedly committed was "disturbing the peace."  The acting Sergeant in charge of the case reported that the citizen accused "was very cooperative" with authorities but had not gotten to the root causes of his behavior: "They said, 'Why did you do this?' He just shook his head in guilt or remorse. He didn't give a reason why he did it." 

Case No.:

Mao, Juewen

N607 Shenghong Plz Term 2, Shanghai China

Boat/Careless Oper

Delinq-Fail to pay.

Saturday, October 08, 2011

The Origins of China's Soul

                                               Great Wall of China.

Kept barbarians out.

Wrong. Kept Han-Chinese in. Who would have thought?  No you didn't.  No you did not think that. LIAR, LIAR, YOUR UNDERPANTS ARE ON FIRE!

Really, isn't that what we all "know?"  Look it up in Wikipedia: Great Wall of China: built to protect "against intrusions."  Others know better:

"Thus the Great Wall(s)...were seen officially as a barrier to barbarians, whereas, in fact, they were built just as surely to hold a taxpaying, sedentary, cultivating population within the ambit of state power." (James C. Scott, "The Art of Not Being Governed," 173).

This is a Gestalt shift. Walls do have two sides, an outside and an inside. When I go to the jailhouse (to visit clients) I don't look at the walls and think they're to keep me out; I know they're to keep the inmates in.  Different walls for different folks.

Professor Scott explains that by "seen officially" he means that the "civilizational discourse" of the function of the Great Wall was to keep barbarians out.  In other words that was the Chinese state's version and since that version comported with one common sense understanding of the function of walls it stuck. The purpose of the Great Wall of course was both as defense against invasion and as jail (Professor Scott's word is "enclosure"):

"We know that some of the border Chinese began to follow the same line of divergent evolution [pastoral nomadism] and that it was to retain the Chinese within China as well as to keep the new style barbarians out of China that the Great Wall was built." (Owen Lattimore, "The Frontier in History," (1962) cited by Scott, 172).

In popular understanding, in Wikipedia, in other scholarly literature (1) the emphasis is clearly on The Great Wall as defensive. The Great Wall failed as a defense; it succeeded as a jail. It was a tool used by the state to keep hold of the Han-Chinese and contributed to China's successful state-building.

(1) See, e.g. John W. Head, "China's Legal Soul," pp 7, 8, 50-1.

Thursday, October 06, 2011

Steve Jobs, R.I.P.

Mr. Jobs, one of the greatest entrepreneurs and innovators in the history of American capitalism, died last evening of pancreatic cancer.

Tuesday, October 04, 2011

How do you explain this.

Monday, October 03, 2011

The Origins of China's Soul

It has been the argument here that the "animating principle," the soul, of China is survival; that of the fundamental human emotions fear and pain are more important to understanding Chinese than, say, Americans; and that China's characteristic centralism is one of the "behavioral consequences" of these.

The Chinese state relentlessly and ruthlessly imposed its authority on the people and once its authority was established it guarded it in the same manner. Fear was the emotional basis and survival of the dominant ethnicity, the Han, was the focus. Thus the Chinese state built walls, not only to keep invaders out, but to keep the Han in. China has not been as imperial or as exploratory as Western states. The Chinese focus was on extending its writ over people; the Western focus was on land.

The Chinese state's unprecedented success in extending its authority over its people and consolidating its control through an unprecedented degree of centralism is owed significantly to geography.  Until the modern era the state's writ ran only as far as the land was flat.  Mountains dissipated authority as they do hurricanes and tornadoes. Geography effects agriculture too; Chinese geography, as that of much of Asia, favored the cultivation of rice as the basic foodstuff. This was maybe the key factor in the success of the Chinese state.

Rice cultivation is almost uniquely suited to state building. It requires a settled people; it requires population density. This made for easier state control;  the seat of state power could be near the rice fields.  Rice facilitated the state's ability to police its people, to tax them, and to defend against outside aggression.

This post draws heavily on Professor James C. Scott's book, The Art of Not Being Governed. However that book is not about China; I have applied, perhaps misapplied, what I learned there to China. What Professor Scott wrote in the introduction to his book therefore is applicable here: This post is all my fault.

Sunday, October 02, 2011

China's Cultural Revolution by Zhang Mu. Chapter 5.

Chapter 5. The third stage of the Cultural Revolution1973-1976
  1. Although Mao defeated Lin, but his body and mind suffered huge attack, health worsened1972-1976
After having overthrown Liu Shaoqi clique, Mao could not but carry on eliminating Lin Biao clique. Mao thought the imperial authority inheriting developed into the struggle between himself and Zhou (including Deng Xiaoping), Jiang Qing said explicitly that this was “the inner-party 11th struggle between two lines”. Mao and Jiang Qing launched “criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius and Zhou”, “criticizing capitulationists”, “criticizing Song Jiang” to attack Zhou. Unfortunately Zhou died of illness, his prestige increased, the people took mourning Zhou as the reason, erupted a large scale protest to Mao and Jiang Qing, the “Beijing Tiananmen Incident” in April 5, the Qingming Festival, 1976. Mao once designated that Wang Hongwen maintained the political power, and then the power transitioned to Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin, but afterward he found that Wang Hongwen's ability was not good, Jiang Qing also could not control the situation because there was the resistance came from some CCP senior statesmen, Mao Yuanxin was still quite young and not mature enough. In a dilemma, Mao on the surface scolded Jiang Qing, but his succession had to be in accordance with his intentions, at least kept it until before his death. Mao and Jiang Qing had to overthrow Deng Xiaoping once more, and selected Huang Guofeng to transit the imperial power. Mao died, Huang Guofeng and Ye Jianying and so on senior statesmen planned, easily crushed Jiang Qing’s “Gang of Four”, the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” had finished finally. Huang Guofeng wanted to use the “two whatevers” policy (whatever the decision Chairman Mao had made, we maintain firmly; whatever Mao’s instruction, we steadfastly follow) to maintain his dominant status, soon Deng Xiaoping and Hu Yaobang used "Practice is the criterion for testing truth" to chase Huang Guofeng off the stage, with “four cardinal principles”(keep to the socialist road, uphold the people's democratic dictatorship, uphold leadership by the CCP and uphold Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought) substituted for the “two whatevers”. The later CCP hierarchs still wanted to put Mao as a "banner" to maintain the “proletariat revolutionary business” which Mao and the CCP establish ingrained for a long time.
In 1954 the national constitution stipulated that Mao’s state president term would end in 1959, but in order to inherit the throne, Mao abolished the constitution. and battled with Liu Shaoqi Although the CCP constitution had not limited Mao’s president tenure in office, but Mao had surpassed 70 years old; Mao often swim in Yangtze River and other major rivers, demonstrated his health as well as the struggle the confidence to win victories. His body was very good indeed. Although Mao won the dispute with the Lin Biao group, but his body and mind were under the huge attack. Zhang Yufeng recalled, after Lin Biao incident, Mao was suffering from hypertension, manic sickness, often threw things around, tearing paper and cursed. at people. He often insomnia, sleep screaming, "close ally", "successor", "deputy commander in chief," "always healthy" and so on. His health quickly deteriorated.

(1) On July 16, 1966, Mao swim was swimming the Yangtze River in Wuhan. In addition, he many times swam in Xiangjiang River, Pearl River, even wintertime swimming in Yi River. (2) In 1966 vigorous and healthy Mao mounted Tiananmen and followed by sick Lin Biao. (3) On July 19, 1968, Wuhan city celebrated the second anniversary of Mao swimming in Yangtze River. Wuhan’s two factions of rebels when end this photo, argued and violent fought each other for several day, many people were killed, this was the world-shaking “7.20 Incident”. (4) In 1973 Guangxi Nanning held the 15th anniversary of Mao winter swimming in Yongjiang River.
(1) Harbin military and civilians were swimming in Songhua River to commemorate Mao’s swimming in Yangtze River. Every year all the country had to commemorate Mao swimming in Yangtze River grandly, Mao’s health was the guarantee to lead the rebel victory. (2) In 1974 Mao was very difficult to stand, Mao and his medical personnel. (3) Senile and morbid Mao was meeting foreign country visitor.
2. The 10th Party Congress, Mao selected Wang Hongwen to “take over”1972-1976
In July, 1967, Wuhan incident, Mao was compelled to depart Wuhan come to Shanghai, just when Wang Hongwen led more than 30 ten thousand workers, suppressed another faction mass organization, everywhere were sentry posts, compared to Wuhan Shanghai appeared in stable order, Mao thought that Wang Hongwen and such rebels could grasp the overall situation. In 1968, Zhang Chunqiao arranged the Wang to go to the Beijing especially observation of the national day ceremony. Mao received Wang alone, knew that the Wang was Changchun person, born in 1935, did not finish primary school, when 16 years old enlisted in the military. In 1956 demobilized to be a worker in Shanghai No. 17 cotton factory, during the Cultural Revolution, he led to revolt, became a member of Shanghai Revolutionary Committee. Mao let Wang stay in Beijing, assigned him to attend the 12th Second Plenary Session of the 8th CCP Committee, Mao praised his rebellion spirit many times. Zhang Chunqiao promoted Wang's duty, Wang became the representative of CCP’s 9th Congress. On April 14, 1969, Wang read the text which was written by Xu Jingxian in the CCP’s 9th Congress. Mao let Wang to be member of the Central CCP Committee and to manage Shanghai's work, Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan to be Political Bureau member. After Lin Biao fall, in September, 1972 Mao let Wang work and entrust with heavy responsibility in his side, let Wang participated every meeting which Zhou Enlai managed. Although Mao valued Zhang Chunqiao, but Zhang was a scholar and accumulated grievances very many, was very difficult to get most people's support. Jiang Qing group’s strength only then was Shanghai’s Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Wang Hongwen and so on. Another was Liaoning’s Mao Yuanxin but its influence was too weak. Mao placed the key point in the Shanghai gang. Wang Hongwen was young, had the experience of “worker, peasant and soldier”, obedient, was not possible to strive for the power with Jiang Qing. In May, 1973, Mao prepared the CCP’s 10th Congress, he let Wang attend Political Bureau meeting, and Wang was responsible for the party constitution revision group, to propose the new party constitution draft. On August 20, Mao let Zhou Enlai transmit his instruction that Wang Hongwen was the director of election committee. On August 24, 1973, Mao managed the 10th CCP Congress opening ceremony, Zhou gave a politics report, Wang gave the report of revision party constitution, and Wang became vice-president of CCP.

(1) Propaganda photo, Wang Hongwen was studying. Actually he had neither learning nor skill. (2) Wang Hongwen gave the report of revision CCP constitution in the 10th CCP Congress. (3) In 1973, Mao, Wang Hongwen and Zhou Enlai on chairman's podium of the 10th CCP Congress. (4) After Mao died, on October 6, 1976, Wang Hongwen was arrested, in 1980 he was sentenced the life imprisonment; on August 3, 1992, Wang died of illness in Beijing.
3. Deng Xiaoping who was struck down returned Beijing and Chaired1973-1975
The CCP’s history is a bloody process of people fight against the people. Deng's life once had “three downs and three ups” the legendary experience. The first “down” was 1930, instigated under Soviet Russia, the CCP worked for “two Chinas”, Jiangxi Ruijin “the Chinese Soviet Republic” (actually, only a few counties), Mao was president of the “Republic” Deng was secretary of Ruijin county party committee. In the “Chinese Soviet areas” the CCP clique struggled vehemently, Deng had been interrogated, shuts in jail, his wife Jin Weiying divorced with him. Afterward in 1935 on the Long March road he stood up from failure in politics.
The second was at the beginning of “Cultural Revolution”, Deng was the No.2 “capitalist-roader” of “Liu and Deng bourgeoisie headquarters”, was overthrown, all his family received implicates, his son, Deng Pufang, was tortured and forced to jumps from an upper story to suicide but not die, became disability. Deng’s family released to the Jiangxi reform-through-labor. In June~July, 1967, Deng wrote in his "My Bio": “I hope in my remaining years, repent and start anew, turns over a new leaf, use Mao Zedong Thought remolding diligently my Bourgeois world-view. To me, how to process is not excessive. I guarantee never reverse the verdict, do not work as an unrepentant capitalist roader.”. After Lin Biao fell in 1971, Deng two times wrote letters to Mao to beg for mercy; On August 3 letter it wrote: “about me, my mistake and the crime, which wrote in June and July, 1968…I realize, has made the self-criticism. To the present, I still acknowledged I examine complete content, and affirmed once more I make guarantee to the CCP central, never reverse the verdict.” In 1973, Zhou Enlai got sick and lifted Deng, Deng “appointed” to be vice-premier. At the beginning of 1975, Deng was appointed as the CCP vice-president, the State Council first vice-premier, Central Military Committee vice-president the concurrently chief of the general staff, and manages the central routine work.
 (The third, he was in 1975 overthrows once more, in 1978 resurfaced).

(1) Deng Xiaoping was struck down and expelled out of Beijing to Jiangxi Xinjian County tractor repairing plant to reform-through-labor
 (1) Deng Pufang (right). Deng Xiaoping’s son and Fang Xinrang (Hong Kong renowned orthopedist who devoted to serve for disabled people). Deng Pufang, born in 1944. In May 1968, Deng Xiaoping was overthrown, all his family implicated in persecution, Deng Pufang was tortured, he jumped from an upper story to commit suicide. He did not die but became disabled. Now was president of China Handicapped Federation Presidium, vice-president of National Political Consultative Conference. (2) From October, 1969 to February, 1973, Deng Xiaoping who overthrew, reform-through-labor in the Jiangxi Xinjian County Tractor Repair Factory. Picture shows the original factory gate. (3) Xinjian County Tractor Repair Factory obviously now is not have economic efficiency and goes out of business, but the government allocate money to construct to be a “patriotic education base”
 (1) Deng and his stepmother and his wife Zhuo Lin in the Jiangxi Xinjian County. 1972 . (2,3) Mr. and Mrs. Deng reform-through-labor factory and workshop.
 (1) In that years, Deng couple walked on the main path every day to the factory from housing to work very far, therefore they took the alley, went to the factory work to be quite near. This alley after the renovation, named as “Xiaoping track”. (2) In the September, 2006, Shaanxi provincial finance department CCP organization 35 people, the secretary leads to “red travel”, put on so-called “red military uniform” to walk “the Xiaoping track” to “accept the patriotic education”. (3) Every day innumerable government money red traveling groups visited “Xiaoping track exhibition hall” .
(2) National economy somewhat restored under Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping’s works
 (1) On May 18, 1974, when Mao met with Cypriot president, Mao and Zhou shook hand. (2) National production and economy were already nearly in collapse. Lin Biao fall, Zhou Enlai recommended Deng Xiaoping to come on stage. In January, 1975 Zhou was ill but still gave a speech in the 4th session of National People's Congress, requested the party to “grasp revolution and promote production, develop the national economy”. (3) Benxi Iron and steel company in 1975 ““grasp revolution and promote production” the steel mill workers were casting.
(1,2) The national economy situation changed better slightly, but each region was busy with doing such “image project”, had constructed massive monuments of Mao’s quotations and slogans. Now it is difficult to see such traces. (3) Monument wall of Mao’s quotations at hospital entrance. (4) Monument wall of Mao’s quotations at army barracks gate.
In nation-wide every place gave a lot of expenditure of time and effort to construct Mao’s portrait monuments or Mao’s sculpture, left behind until now, some needed to keep in repair.
4. Mao and Jiang Qing launched “criticizing Lin, Confucius and Zhou”1974-1976
(1) “Criticizing Lin Biao, Confucius and Zhou”
After Lin Biao fall, Zhou and Deng brought order out of chaos of the Cultural Revolution, the economy had restoration slightly, their prestige increased. Mao and Jiang Qing feared that Zhou and Deng to endanger the power taking over of Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin, launched to “criticize Lin Biao and Confucius and Zhou”, Confucius was China’s ancient educationalist more than 2000 year ago, Lin Biao had died, the goal was “criticize Zhou”. They feared that “criticize Zhou” was too undisguised, afterward was called “criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius”. The CCP had falling out thoroughly with Soviet Union, there was existence nuclear war crisis, the US showed good will to China, Mao invited Nixon to visit China, Zhou arranged American Kissinger to visit China many times, improved the Sino-US relations. In June, 1973, Mao said that Zhou “joint with the bourgeoisie often forgot struggles”. Map also criticized an article which Zhou and the Foreign Affairs Ministry led to write about the US-Soviet relations, so Zhou had written a self-criticism immediately to him. On July 4 Mao called and instructed Wang Hongwen and Zhang Chunqiao, must criticize Lin Biao and Confucius. In the evening, Zhang Chunqiao informed Zhou to request to hold the Political Bureau meeting to transmit Mao’s instruction. Mao and Jiang Qing repeatedly talked about Confucius “self-denial” to resume “Zhou rite”, should did on large scale “criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius and Duke of Zhou”, said that Zhou departed from the Cultural Revolution to practice the revisionism. Later Zhou always received Mao’s criticism, Zhou had to self-criticism again. Jiang Qing, Wang Hongwen said: “criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius movement is the second Great Cultural Revolution, the 11th struggle between inner party two lines” (ten struggles between two lines are refer to Mao struggle with Chen Duxiu, Li Lisan, Qu Qiubai, Luo Zhangnong, Zhang Guotao, Gao Gang and Rao Shushi, Peng Dehuai, Liu Shaoqi, Lin Biao'). On January 4, 1974, People's Daily published “Confucius killing Shaozheng Mao explained what”, pointed out specially: “Confucius held the post … acting prime minister duty”. Various publications published critical articles continuously, criticized several ancient prime minister in Chinese history, implying Premier Zhou. In 1974 the fourth issue "Red Flag" magazine published Beijing University and Tsinghua University Mass-criticism Group’s article “What kind of person is Confucius”, it used Confucius’ image to scold Zhou: “71 years old, serious illness in bed ...... Also struggling to get up, shaked [Don't know-B.H.] to see the king of Lu country”. On June 22, 1974, Jiang Qing in Tianjin Xiaojinzhuang village asked a woman (whose surname is Zhou) to change her name: “you call Zhou Kezhou! With our this ‘Zhou’ restrains that ‘Zhou’!”
(1) Mao and Jiang Qing launched to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius, the nation acts as soon as one gets the news, “Workers, peasants and soldiers are the main army who criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius”. (2) Tsinghua University “criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius” symposium. (3) “Criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius” movement carried at Confucius’ former dwelling Shandong Qufu Confucian temple.
 (1) “Criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius General Assembly” was held at the former residence of Confucius, the Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong. (2) Fully armed militiamen angrily complained the crime of Confucius more than 2400 years ago. (3) People's Liberation Army were heard Confucius hometown's poor peasant angrily to complained Confucius’ decadent and luxurious life more than 2400 years ago. [No sure if Mr. Mu means the peasants or the PLA were complaining]
 (1,2) People's Liberation Army criticize Lin Biao and Confucius. (3) Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps criticize Lin Biao and Confucius. 1975 . (4) The poor peasants criticize Lin Biao and Confucius.
 (1,2) “Criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius meeting” was always held on the labor sites. (3) The educated youth in countryside carried on criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius.
 (1,2) Massively published books about criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius. (3) reward for activist in “criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius” mass movement. (4-6) Various posters of criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius.
Various posters of criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius.
various provinces and cities rushed to compile and print books and posters to smear Confucius.
 (1) “Working people Counter-Confucius Struggle's History Story”. (2) “Confucius Is Counter-revolutionary Restoration Founder”. Beijing University Philosophy Department, 1970 session workers-peasants-soldiers students; People Education Publishing House. (3) Feng Tianyu: “Critique of Confucius’ Education Thought”. People Publishing House. (4) “Critique of Confucius’ Economic Thought”. Chinese Finance Economical Publishing House. 1974. (5) “Confucius’ Crimes Record” written by Zhengzhou Cultural Museum, Anhui Slide Studio. 1974.
(2) Mao summoned tot comment the novel “Water Margin”, criticizing capitulationists such as Song Jiang, the character of this novel
Mao repeatedly launched attack to Zhou. In 1973, under Mao’s instruction Zhou many times met and talked with US national security assistant Kissinger, Zhou also accompanied Mao to meet with Kissinger. Wang Hongwen and Jiang Qing jointly wrote letter to Mao, said that Zhou and Ye Jianying spoke wrong words to the American. Mao said that Zhou to Kissinger arbitrarily made a pledge of China-US military cooperation. Mao issued order to hold the Political Bureau enlarged meeting to criticize Zhou, said that Zhou Enlai accepted US's nuclear umbrella, Zhou was the capitulationists, and had to “criticizing capitulationists”. Mao let Tang Wensheng (Mao’s translator) convey a message: “Zhou Enlai fears seriously to Soviet Union, if they hit into, he wants to work as Soviet son emperor.” In November, 1973, Political Bureau held a special meeting to criticize Zhou. Wang Hairong (assistant foreign minister, Mao’s relative) and Tang Wensheng (Mao’s translator) recalled: “Jiang Qing said that `this is the 11th struggle between two lines ', Yao Wenyuan also said so”. They said that Zhou Enlai “impatiently” wanted to substitute Mao. At the meeting Zhou angered to Pound the table: “I, Zhou Enlai have committed many mistakes in my lifetime, but the right deviation surrenderism's name can not put on me!” On December 9, 1973, Mao said to Zhou Enlai, Wang Hongwen, Wang Hairong and Tang Wensheng: (s batch of weekly assembly) “This meeting (Political Bureau meeting to criticizing Zhou) is good,very good.” But Mao also said “some one said two wrong sentences, should not say this is the 11th struggle between two lines, Zhou is not impatient, Jiang Qing herself is impatient.” At the beginning of 1974, Mao said to Wang Hairong: “Now is the time to criticize the Duke of Zhou” (due to special status, her little tape recorder and record the passage). Mao authorized to send out CCP Central the 1st document in 1974, wanted all the country study “Lin Biao And Way of Confucius and Mencius” which Jiang Qing managed to compile. Mao stressed many times “take seriously comment ‘Water Margin’(a Chinese classical novel, other name ‘All Men Are Brothers’)”, and said that Zhou was a “Song Jiang-like figure” (Song Jiang is the figure in story of “Water Margin”), is a capitulationist. On September 20, 1975, Zhou was seriously ill before entering the operating room, shouted loudly: “I am not a capitulationist!” In 1976 the People's Daily, Liberation Army Daily and Red Flag magazine jointing New Year's Editorial, summoned further to comment “Water Margin”.
Although Jiang Qing and Wang Hongwen said that criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius was the 11th struggle between two lines, and launched a “counter-tidal current” rebellion high tide, but the fact proved and Mao was also very clear, it did against the will of the people really. Moreover, Mao was old and sick, dropped into desperation, he sighed “counter-Zhou, the people opposed inevitably”, soon the words spread over the nation very quickly as the highest instruction. “Criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius movement” like this ended up with nothing definite.
 (1) In 1974 Mao repeatedly said that Zhou Enlai was a Song Jiang-style figure of the story “Water Margin”, a capitulationist. People's Daily on August 31,1975, the editorial “Emphasize on ‘Water Margin’ commentary”. (2,3) 1974~1976 massively printed Chairman Mao’s Quotations, Mao commented "Water Margin", Song Jiang was a capitulationist and did revisionism. 
 (1) the nation-wide developed a “commenting ‘Water Margin’ and criticizing Song Jiang” mass movement. (2) Poster “Study theory, comment ‘Water Margin’, oppose and guard against revisionism”. (3) Poster “Let people know capitulators”. (4) Poster “Launch to comment ‘Water Margin’ movement”.
1In 1976 the People's Daily, Liberation Army Daily and Red Flag magazine jointing New Year's Editorial, summoned further to comment “Water Margin”. (2) "hold high the red flag to comment ‘Water Margin’”. Hebei People's Publishing House. (3) “Launch to comment ‘Water Margin’ movement”. (4) Books “An ancient typical capitulator - Song Jiang”. (5) Poster “ Study Chairman Mao's instructions, carry on to comment ‘Water Margin’”.
1Poster “Let people know capitulators”.Mao said Zhou was a Song Jiang-style capitulator. (2) Poster: “ In ‘Water Margin’ Song Jiang’s capitulationist mean countenance”. 3”Carry on to comment ‘Water Margin’, let people know capitulators”.
 (1) “Marx & Mao etc. on opposing revisionism and capitulationists”. Anhui Normal University, Department of Politics, 1975. (2) Poster “Let people know the capitulationists”. Jilin People's Publishing House. 1975. (3) “commented in ‘Water Margin’ Song Jiang’s capitulationist mean countenance”. Ningxia People's Publishing House, 1976. (4) “Capitulationist in ‘Water Margin’ --Song Jiang”. Hebei People's Publishing House.
Various comics about “Capitulationist in ‘Water Margin’ --Song Jiang”.
5. Jiang Qing wanted “formed a cabinet”, the senior statesmen opposed1974-1975
After Lin Biao’s fall, the fourth session of National People's Congress must open, facing the authority redistribution, Mao intended Jiang Qing to come on stage, let her lead “criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius”. Every time Mao faced a significant conflict, often left Beijing to the outside areas for observation and waited to the aspect clarification, only then return to Beijing to purge. in October, 1974, the CCP’s publication “Red Flag” published “Study the historic experience of struggle between Confucianism and Legalism”, it said: after “Liu Bang died, Queen Lu and  the later several emperors continued to implement Liu Bang's legalist route, Chao Cuo, Zhang Tang, Sang Hongyang and so on legalists let them manage the central work. Because in central had such coherent legalist leading group, only then Legalist line ensured to upheld.” Liu Bang implied Mao, Queen Lu: Jiang Qing, Chao Cuo: Zhang Chunqiao, Zhang Tang: Yao Wenyuan, Sang Hongyang: Wang Hongwen; the legalist line implied “Cultural Revolution” line. Zhou, Deng and the most CCP senior statesmen struggle intensely with the “Gang of Four”. On December 23, 1974, Zhou went to Changsha to see Mao in spite of his own illness, Wang Hongwen also came to Mao immediately; Mao had no choice but on the surface to criticize Wang Hongwen and Jiang Qing “Gang of Four”; Mao said that Deng “is a rare talented person”, and Mao pointed at Wang’s face and said to Zhou: “He is not as good as Deng Xiaoping”. Wang was dumbfounded. But after the fall of “Gang of Four” the CCP wantonly propagandized about Mao criticizing Wang Hongwen, said that Mao did not have the significant responsibility for the “Cultural Revolution” disaster, the primary responsibility was the “Gang of Four”.
(1,2,3) Jiang Qing hyped the “Fengqing Ship event”: in September, 1974, Shanghai Jiangnan Shipyard made a 10,000-ton “Fengqing Ship” to trial success, in fact, the quality is not clearance. In order to form the cabinet before the fourth National People's Congress, she used all media to propagandize that Zhou and Deng “worship foreign things and fawn on foreign powers”, “shipbuilding is inferior to buy ship”, “crawlism [Don't know-B.H.] and slavish comprador philosophy, surrender betrays country”. They wrote materials and distributed to all committee members of CCP Political Bureau. On October 14, Jiang Qing wrote:“Fengqing Ship’s success, I am filled with the proletariat outrage! I ask, is the Communication Ministry lead by People's Republic of China of Chairman Mao and CCP? Is the State Council a dictatorship of the proletariat State organ? A few persons who worship foreign things and fawn on foreigners and the comprador bourgeoisie thought, have gained power”. (4) Snail event”: In 1973, Deng Xiaoping State approved the State Council to send a group to go to Japan and the US to inspect for prepare to introduce the color TV set production line. An American company present glass snails to the group. On February 10, 1974, Jiang Qing said that the American delivering the snails was to satirize China “crawlism”, the US imperialist to provoke us, she ordered the Foreign Affairs Ministry to lodge the protest to the US and to sends back the snailt, must counter-attack firmly! Afterward Vice-Premier Li Xiannian also scolded. The nation-wide immediately checked whether to receive any presents of slandering China; The result had found out some ox and turtle models present. The turtles were presentd by Japanese who thought turtle means longevity, but some Chinese thought the turtle and the ox are cursing people. The Foreign Affairs Ministry investigated the intention of American delivering snail actually had not any satirizing meaning, snail is one of Christmas traditional presents. Therefore, more five years later then the Chinese people could see color TV.
 (1,2) Mao authorized to send out CCP Central the 1st document on January 18, 1974, wanted the nation-wide to study “Lin Biao and the Way of Confucius and Mencius” which Jiang Qing managed to compile, launched “criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius” movement. (3) The CCP Central the 3rd document in 1974, ordered the nation-wide to study the PLA No.20 army’s letter to Jiang Qing and the reply. (4) From 1974 to 1976, Jiang Qing had 8 times in Tianjin to set up “criticizing Lin Biao and Confucius and Zhou” model, to build momentum for her getting power. (5) After Lin Biao’s fall, Mao’s disease deteriorated, speech difficulty, depending on writes to exchange. In the fourth session of National People's Congress the authority redistribution, Jiang Qing acted with undue haste to “form a cabinet”, Mao could not but criticize Jiang Qing and her“Gang of Four” under the CCP senior statesmen’s pressure. Picture shows Mao’s writing to criticize Jiang Qing.
6. Mao Zedong's liaison officer, Mao Yuanxin's revolutionary action1975-1976
Although Mao’s health deteriorated, speech difficulty, but this thought was unambiguous, must clean each kind of resistance to hand over the imperial authority to Jiang Qing and finally to Mao Yuanxin. Mao Yuanxin in Liaoning did a famous“socialism major market day” and “cutting the capitalism tails”, the farmers had to sell all the products to the“national purchasing station”at low price, even the eggs prepared for the childbirth women, otherwise were punished. various villagers had to“night fighting”to build the irrigation and“Dazhai field”, using the same methods in the“Great Leap Forward”, which destroyed the economy and the ecology. At that time Liaoning's material supply was the the worst in the nation. Mao Zedong said: “Mao Yuanxin has some theory foundation, although does not compare Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan, but, compare some people he is much stronger. He has a set of valuable experiences work in the basic unit, this is precisely our central certain masters most deficient.” In October, 1975, Mao Yuanxin was “Mao’s liaison officer”, had power authority to issue the “highest instructions”. Yao Wenyuan said that “Mao Yuanxin’s name is Mao’s liaison officer, but in each meeting his speech become the central melody. After transmission Mao Zedong’s instructions, Mao Yuanxin gave his own explanation, said that Chairman Mao agreed with his view.” Mao Zedong once said to Mao Yuanxi: “You must help Jiang Qing, our family remained persons are not many!” Obviously, they treated the national affairs as the imperial private affairs. Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin were “our family's persons”, others were the bystanders. In 1975, Mao openly criticized Jiang Qing, actually he was probing the people’s attitude to Jiang Qing.

(1) Mao Yuanxin coordinated with Jiang Qing to persecute intellectual
 (1) Liaoning Shenyang literary and art circles criticized Zhou Huan. (2) Zhou Huan (1909-1993), political commissar of Shenyang Military Region, member of the CCPCentral Northeast Bureau, secretary of Liaoning CCP committee secretariat, once in blizzard he was often pulled in to the villages of Panjing to be interrogated. Zhou Huan, Luo Ding, Liu Zhi and so on 36 “counter-revolutionaries” had been listed to be executed. Mao Yuanxin said: “Panjin is not large, but enough buried Liu Zhi and Luo Ding and so on”. Afterward although Zhou Huan’s life had preserved but the devastation caused him hemiplegia. In 1979he was consultant of the State Council Culture Ministry. (3,4) Drama and the movie “Army reach the city”, created by famous artist Luo Ding (president of Liaoning People Theater, deputy director of Liaoning province cultural department), Jiang Qing labeled it as reactionary film and banned. Luo Ding was once sentenced to death. In 1983 he died of illness. (4) Liu Zhi (1921- 1998), renowned artist. Art director of the Central Opera Troupe, art adviser of Chinese Railroad Troupe, vice-president of Liaoning Opera Troupe.
 (1) Zhang Zhixin, born in 1930 in a university music teacher’s family in Tianjin, graduated from Renmin University, in 1955 joined the CCP, clerk of Liaoning CCP Committee propaganda department. In Cultural Revolution she criticized Mao’s personality cult and so on, 1969~1975 she was imprisoned and persecuted. On May 14, 1970, she was sentenced to death by Liaoning Panjin Revolutionary Committee. Chen Xilian (Director of Liaoning Revolutionary Committee) wrote “not kill, kept for negative education”. Later Chen Xilian was transferred to a new post of Beijing Military Region commander, Mao Yuanxin managed Liaoning’s work; Mao Yuanxin said “Zhang Zhixin in imprisonment period is rampant, continues counter-revolutionary activity. Lives one day more will carry on one day of counter-revolutionary, kill as a finish.” On April 4, 1975, She was executed, to prevent her to shout, her throat was cut off; her remains was missing. (2) Zhang Zhixin’s writing of interrogating the warden. (3) After Mao died, the CCP rehabilitated for Zhang Zhixin and subsequently confirmed her as the martyr. (4) Li Wenqing, born in 1923, after 1957, she was a doctor in Liaoning Benxi. She had written 13 letters to CCP Central, pointed out that “this Great Cultural Revolution is a man-made disaster”, therefore she wasput in prison as “counter-revolutionary”. Mao Yuanxin personally wrote about her “It is only death penalty that can appease civilians' anger.” On March 25, 1973, Shenyang convened ten thousand people meeting to trial Li Wenqing and she was executed by shooting, to prevent her to shout, her throat was cut off; her remains was missing. Her son and her husband were also imprisoned more than one year.
(2) All the nation learned from Liaoning’s “night fighting”, large scale “Dazhai field”, “socialism major market day”
 (1,2), Liaoning is the country’s advanced in “Agriculture Learn From Dazhai” movement, day and night vigorously made terrace field, but actually damaged environment, wasted of resources. (3) Liaoning made terrace field to destroy the environment. Picture shows a village in Zhangwu now “convert the land for forestry, Grain for Green”, “Combating Desertification”, got “initial results”.
 (1,2) The “ruins”of Mao Yuanxin did the “socialist big market”. In Liaoning Zhangwu County, the people's commune forced the peasant households to sell their products by the state-operated price in the “socialist big market”, and it was the “political task”. August 5, 1976 , was a“socialist big market day”, nation wide various provinces and cities sent the representatives come here, in order to photography for propaganda and parade, caught up 316 live pigs from various villages which later 43 were died, damaged 945 catties eggs. The “dig market day” had to study Jiang Qing’s  Tianjin Xiaojinzhuang village’s experience. (3) Jilin Province learned from Liaoning to do“socialist big market” in countryside. Guangming People's Commune in Yushu County, “singing the model operas” and propagandized lively in the“socialist big market day”.
(3) During Cultural Revolution time Liaoning was the worst area in material supplies
 (1) Liaoning Shenyang 100g egg ticket, 1970. (2) Benxi 250g food oil ticket. (3) Liaoning Shenyang 250g vermicelli ticket,1971.
Liaoning Shenyang, the vouchers to buy commodities, 1974,
Liaoning, purchase tickets for overseas remittances, 50g grain coupon.50g food oil tickets, etc.
 (1) Liaoning Province clothing coupon, 1970. (2,3) Anshan 250g pork tickets. 1971.(4) Liaoning Dalian Chemical Factory Revolutionary committee, “sawdust ticket” (fuel), 1972. (5) Liaoning Dalian countryside “grain and cooking oil supply card” (the farmers buy grain and cooking oil by card).
 (4) Mao Yuanxin and Jiang Qing flattered mutually, formed a partnership to attack Zhou Enlai
(1,2) Two places of foothold of “Beijing Agricultural University”. Mao said “Agricultural University set in the city is preposterous”, ordered all China’s agricultural colleges to move to the ravines, caused the teaching equipment damage and agricultural education suffering blow; Beijing Agricultural University was forced to move to a ditch side in Ganquan county in Shaanxi province, because the conditions were too poor, then after Chou En-lai’s agreement it had to move in Zhuo County in Hebei province. Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin set a “Chaoyang Agricultural College” as a education model for the country to learn, and the Beijing Agricultural University was  the combat target, moreover they attacked Zhou Enlai to use the Beijing Agricultural University relocation as one of charges. After Mao’s death, Beijing Agricultural University moved back to Beijing. (3) Jiang Qing instructed to photography the news record movie “Liaoning’s New things”, propagandized the “Chaoyang Agriculture College”, “socialist big market” and so on did by Mao Yuanxin. (4) Mao Yuanxin instructed t Liaoning People's Publishing House to edit and publish “Ten New Things in Xiaojinzhuang of Tianjin", propagandized Jiang Qing to “act against revisionism”, “criticizing Deng counter-rightists”.
7. Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin teamed up struggled with Deng Xiaoping Around the "Education revolution"1972-1976
(1) Deng Xiaoping insisted to resume the university recruitment of students, Mao adhered to “recommend the workers, peasants and soldiers to the university”
 (1) Mao’s highest instruction in 1968: “University has to do, what I say here mainly is the science and engineering college should do ... ” (2) Mao’s quotation song “University has to do”. (3) In December 1970, Nanfang Daily: Guangzhou’s nine universities closed for 5 years, started to recruit students. Other universities in nation wide also only then incurred the “worker-peasant-soldier students” at that time. (4) In the second half of 1970, quilt few educated youths had the chance to be “recommendated” to be the “worker-peasant-soldier students” to go to college,
(1) Warmly sent-off the “educated youths” who were to be recommended as “worker-peasant-soldier students” to go to college. (2) The university had closed for several years, it began to have students on campus, “welcome worker-peasant-soldier students to the college”. (3) “Warmly welcome the workers to college!”.
12Several “worker-peasant-soldier students” in Beijing University. 3“Worker-peasant-soldier students” were in the class. (4) Guangdong Zhaoqing’s “worker-peasant-soldier students” were in a new “Long March” walk forward to Guangzhou, which was a “education revolution” way. Guangzhou News Photo Agency.
 (1) “Worker-peasant-soldier students” of Shanghai Fudan University criticized Lin Biao and Confucius, their main subject. (2) Guangdong Normal College's teachers and students wrote big-character posters to criticizes Lin Biao and Confucius which was main subject. (3) Central Nationality College's worker-peasant-soldier students were on the main subject “open fire to the revisionist education route”. (4) Huazhong Agricultural College Huanggang Branch’s worker-peasant-soldier students were on the main subject, listened poor peasants to recall the suffering before 1949 in Baolong People's commune, Xinzhou County, Hubei province.
(1) Zhongshan Medical College's worker-peasant-soldier students study Chairman Mao work, this is a main subject. Guangzhou News Photo Agency. (2) Propaganda picture “workers, peasants and soldiers are recommend to go to college”. (3) propaganda picture “worker gives class for the worker-peasant-soldier students”. (4) Beijing University, Tsinghua University, Chaoyang Agriculture College’s worker-peasant-soldier students joint wrote “I go to college for the people”. Chinese youth Publishing House, 1976. (5) Poster ‘People deliver me to go to college, I go to college for the people”.
 (2) The farce of all the nation rush to set up "July 21 worker University"
Amateur vocational education was a good deed originally, but Mao wanted ti transform the vocational education and the schools in to the “proletariat dictatorship tool”, in 1968, People's Daily published Mao on July 21 speech about praise Shanghai Machine Tool Factory Amateur College’s work, and said “universities has to do, what I say here mainly is the Science and engineering college has to do ......” (as for Liberal arts university, his meaning probably do not manage), this was Mao’s “7.21 instruction”, then the nation wide had rushed to set up all kinds of “7.21 worker universities”, turned to a farce. From 1970 to 1976, there were total 33374 “7.21 universities” in China, had 1,485,000 students, these were the formalism performance data.
12Shanghai Machine Tool Factory Workers Amateur Collegein fact was a sparetime night school, after Mao praised it on July 21,1968, it changed the name to be “7.21 University”, the slogan is “completes the school to be proletariat dictatorship tool”, became example which national various units  to learn from. (3) Daqing Oil Field learned from Shanghai Machine Tool Factory’s experience, set up its own “7.21 Worker Universiy”.
(1,2) Worker University students carried on “criticizing Deng”, watched class education models were so-called college courses. (3) Xinhua News Agency propaganda pictures “7.21 worker universities get more and more better”. (4) Nation wide 7.21 worker college education revolution experience meeting document collection. 1975.
 (1) Graduation card of Shanxi Provincial Construction Bureau No.2 Company 7.21 Worker University. (2,3) “Radio” and so on professional magazines must become the “dictatorship tool”, the slogan on cover “Take 7.21 road steadfastly to struggle for the proletariat consolidated dictatorship”; Inside the front cover and the back cover, all were political propaganda, the professional articles were inserts Mao’s quotations. (4) “7.21 worker universities are getting more and more prosperous”. Shanghai People's Publishing House, 1975.
  (1) Poster “Transform the schools to be the proletariat dictatorship tools”. (2) In a bridge construction work site, Zhejiang, some female workers were “7.21 worker university's students”, were going the college curriculum. (3) A factory's “7.21 worker university” was in class. (4) Some countrysides had also set up “coming from the commune and returning to the commune” so-called “5.7 universities”, this was one of them, attending class in the farmland.
(3) Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin jointly set up a hero of“turning in a blank examination paper”and“counter-tidal current”
Everything Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin had to “put Deng's revisionism down” and “counter-tidal current”. When Deng just restored matter to the regular, it was to be confusion again. Deng insisted universities resumed recruitment of students, limited to that time the political environment, it did “recommendation”, but there was serious act of graft in the student recruitment, Deng decided that in June 1973 carried on university entrance examination. Zhang Tiesheng, an educated youth in Xingcheng County, Liaoning Province, in his physics and chemistry examination, could not do but actually wrote a letter on the back of the examination paper to the “respected leadership”, gave a vent of his discontent on the exam. Mao Yuanxin and Jiang Qing found it and immediately labelled Zhang Tiesheng as the “counter-tidal current hero”. Jiang Qing said that Zhang Tiesheng was “uneven stone”, “I must use this stone to hit someone!” Not only enrolled Zhang Tiesheng in Liaoning Tieling Agriculture College, immediately let him joined the CCP, but also appointed him be this school’s CCP deputy secretary, member of the National People's Congress. Zhang Tiesheng whole-heartedly followed Jiang Qing to “criticize Deng”. After Mao’s death, Zhang Tiesheng was sentenced for 15 years.
12Zhang Tiesheng’s examination paper in 1973 when the first time China restored university entrance examination, he could not do but wrote a letter on the back to the “respected leadership”.(3) Mao Yuanxin and Jiang Qing labelled Zhang Tiesheng as the “counter-tidal current hero” and appointed him to be deputy secretary a college’s CCP, member of the National People's Congress. After Mao’s death, he was sentenced for 15 years. (4) Zhang Tiesheng was writting the big-character poster.
 (1,2) “Young people dared counter-tidal current - Liaoning province country educated youth Zhang Tiesheng”. Liaoning People's Publishing House, 1975. (3) Zhang Tieshen and Yang Rongguo: “To dare counter-tidal current”. People's Publishing House, 1975.
 (1) “Politics” of middle school textbook of Guangdong province in 1974, educated the students to study Zhang Tiesheng’s “counter-tidal current” to criticize Deng Xiaoping. Other provinces’ “Politics” textbooks were the same. (2) “A good and difficult to score answer sheet” (praise Zhang Tiesheng) . Liaoning People's Publishing House.1975. (3) “Talk about “counter-tidal current to young friends”. Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 1974. (4,5,6) After Mao’s death, the CCP published many “Reference for criticizing the Gang of Four”, these were the a part of series to criticize Mao Yuanxin.
Massively released song books, phonograph records “Chairman Mao leads us to counter-tidal current”.
(4) Mao Yuanxin and Jiang Qing collaborated in the "National Learning Chaoyang Agricultural College"
Mao in 1958 did “education Great Leap Forward” to set “universities” to recruit the farmer to train for a short time then to return to ountryside, this was Jiangxi “Communism Labor Universities”, as soon as the nation kept out the wind to set up several thousand Communism Labor Universities”. In order to eagerly seize power and create public opinion, Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin collaborated in LiaoningChaoyang Agriculture College” to recruit the farmers to train, flattered this into the “educational revolution model”, let the nation learn from the experience of “Chaoyang Agriculture College”, propagandazed “Reform the schools to be proletariat dictatorship tool”.
 (1) “Ruins” of Jiangxi Communism Labor Universities Jiulianshan Branch School (in Longnan County). In 1960s Jiangxi responded Mao’s summon, each county set at least one or two “Communism Labor Universities”, other various provinces noisy crowdly also had ste massive “Communism Labor Universities”; Afterward all were ran its own course completely. (2) In 1960s Renminbi “one jiao ticket” design was the story of Jiangxi Communism Labor Universities” training farmers. (3) Movie "Breaks off", in Cultural Revolution widely known, propagandized the Jiangxi Communism Labor Universities” story.
Xinhua News Agency publicity photos “Schools should become the proletariat dictatorship tool”. Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin let “Chaoyang Agriculture College” recruit farmers to train, flattered it as the “educational revolution model” for the country to learn.
Xinhua News Agency publicity photos propagandazed the “educational revolution” in “Chaoyang Agriculture College”. 1975.
Massively printed books, the national study “Chaoyang Agricultural College” educational revolution experience.
(1) “A strategic experience: Chaoyang Agricultural education revolution”. Beijing People's Publishing House, 1975. (2) “New socialist university: Chaoyang Agricultural education revolution experience”. People's Publishing House, 1975. (3) Liaoning Provincial Revolutionary Committee: "Schools should become the proletariat dictatorship tool - Chaoyang Agricultural education revolution experience". 1975. (4) “Sruggle and do against with the seventeen years revisionist line of education”.
8. Mao gradually lost confidence to Wang Hongwen, entrusted Huang Guofeng1974-1976
Mao thought that Wang Hongwen was a opponent of Jiang Qing' and Mao Yuanxin, really tried best to train him as an assistant. 1972~1973 Mao let Wang Hongwen meet the foreign leaders, the domestic and foreign media report was “Mao, Zhou, Wang ” such arrangement. Because Wang’s quality was really too low, he gradually lost confidence to Wang. On September 4, 1974, when Mao met with Togo president, beside Mao sitting no longer was Wang Hongwen, but was State Council Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping, it was not Wang Hongwen not in Beijing. But Mao did not feel relieved to Deng, therefore Mao found out Hua Guofeng to entrust with heavy responsibility.
Huang Guofeng, born in 1921in Shanxi Jiaocheng, in 1952 wasMao’s hometown Hunan Xiangtan county party committee secretary, in October1955, Mao made an exception invite him to attend the sixth plenary session of the seventh CCP Committee. Then Huang Guofeng was raised to be the secretary of Xiangtan prefectural Party committee. Hua said: “Protects Chairman Mao’s former dwelling is highly responsible to the party, the people and the revolution. Later, not only here must become Chairman Mao’s living and fighting memorial hall, as well as the China revolution museum”. Therefore Mao said that he “has some theoretical level, is not simple.” After 1959 Lushan conference, Mao let him be Hunan provincial party committee secretary. In 1969 the nineth CCP Congress, Mao let him be member of the CCP Central Committee. In January, 1971, Mao transferred him to Beijing as vice-group leader of the State Council business group and attend the CCP Central Political Bureau meeting. After Lin Biao incident, Huang Guofeng was concurrent political commissar and party secretary of Guangzhou Military Region. In July, 1973, the first plenary session of the tenth CCP Committee, Mao let him be the CCP Political Bureau member. In January, 1975, the fourth National People's Congress, Huang Guofeng was the No. 6 vice-premier (Deng Xiaoping, Zhang Chunqiao and so on altogether 12 vice-premiers), concurrently Minister of Public Security.
 (1) Huang Guofeng (left) was on Mao’s special train. 1955. (2) Mao and Huang Guofeng who worked in Hunan.1960. (3) In May, 1965, Zhang Pinghua (secretary of Hunan CCP committee) accompanied Mao to reascend Jinggang Mountain. When Mao wanted to overthrow Zhou Xiaozhou, Zhang Pinghua using Huang Guofeng criticized Zhou Xiaozhou and later promoted Huang Guofeng, when Hua was on the top power Hua appointed Zhang Pinghua to be minister of CCP Central Propaganda Department. (4) On May 1, 1965, Huang Guofeng led the way for Mao’s reascending Jinggang Mountain. (4) In 1959. Zhou Xiaozhou (left) accompanied Mao in Shaoshan Mao’s native home. Zhou Xiaozhou, born in 1912, Mao’s fellow villager Xiangtan person, university graduated (this was few in CCP cadres); Afterward Mao labelled him “apitalist-roader” and “member of Peng Dehuai antiparty bloc”, was abolished his duty of the irst secretary Hunan CCP committee, in the Cultural Revolution suffered interrogating brutally, in December, 1966, was compelled to commit suicide; in 1979 the CCP rehabilitated for him.
(1) In June, 1966, when Mao left Shaoshan “Dishui Cave”, Wang Yanchun and so on came and to see him off. In May, 1967, Wang Yanchun (secretary of Hunan CCP committee) and Huang Guofeng (Secretary of Hunan CCP committee secretariat) were imprisoned in the same place by the rebels, because they related well, Wang Duihua said that like this did the Cultural Revolution the country would be in confusion and so on; the second day Hua reported these words to the rebels; so Wang suffered the brutal persecution, imprisoned for several years. After Huang Guofeng stepped down, the CCP rehabilitated for Wang. (2) On February 28, 1968, Hunan different rebeller factions jointed to establish province Revolutionary Committee. Photo by Tang Dabai. In 1967, Hunan rebellers mainly divided in to two factions, one was workers as the majority, the other was the university red guards as the majority, both factions wanted to defeat opposite to capture the provincial CCP committee’s power, they used machine gun and tank and cannon to carry on the resort to violence. Wang Yanchun (Hunan CCP secretary) was interrogated. Although Huang Guofeng labelled as a“capitalist-roader”, but to establish the Hunan Revolutionary Committee had an original provincial CCP leader, the worker’s faction wanted Hua to participate in them, but Hua afraid that if selected a wrong faction woulg to be overthrow again, for a long time hesitated. Afterward the workers’ faction got the advantage, on June 21, 1967, Hua immediately wrote a big-character poster to support the workers’ faction, so Hua became a person in charge in the Hunan Revolutionary Committee. (3) In November, 1970, Huang Guofeng led Hunan provincial CCP committee members to visit Shaoshan. (4) In November, 1972, Huang Guofeng accompanied Vice-Premier Li Xiannian to visit the Shaoshan Museum.
 (1) On October 15, 1975, Vice-Premier Huang Guofeng gave a report in the “national agriculture learn Dazhai conference”. (2,3) Huang Guofeng and Chen Yonggui in the Dazhai village. Mao took the Dazhai village in Shanxi Xiyang County as the national agriculture model, and Mao let Chen Yonggui, the Dazhai village agriculture model worker, a semiliterate, work as the CCP Political Bureau member and the vice-premier. (4,5) Massively print Huang Guofeng’s report in the “national agriculture learn Dazhai conference”. (3) In January, 1975 Wenhui Daily and Liberation Daily extra reported that the fourth National People's Congress, Deng Xiaoping, Zhang Chunqiao, Huang Guofeng were elected together as vice-premiers.
9. Jiang Qing and Mao Yuanxin led “criticizing Deng, Anti Rightist Reinstatement”1975-1976
After 1975 the fourth session of National People's Congress, Zhou was seriously ill, Deng managed the central routine work, and carried on reorganization, production and economic situation were improved. But Mao could not tolerate Deng to deviate his Cultural Revolution's direction. In November, 1975, Mao wanted Mao Yuanxin “help” Deng. On November 2, Mao Yuanxin convened a meeting according to Mao’s opinion, when Mao Yuanxin said once more Deng's route wrong, Deng Xiaoping refuted: “I managed central work for more than three months, the national situation was good or bad, the practice might prove”. Mao afterward wanted to hold a meeting again to “help” Deng, and increased persons to the meeting, and then again discussed it in Political Bureau. On November 4, Mao Yuanxin convened a eight people meeting, but most people's speech stressed in the production and did not discuss the Cultural Revolution direction; Mao Yuanxin then stopped the meeting, reported to Mao, Mao was angry and let Deng write self-criticism. Deng wrote a self-criticism. Mao instructed Mao Yuanxin to resolve the problem in Political Bureau meeting, but Political Bureau meeting’s “help” again invalid. Deng were compelled to write an inspection, but it still was similar with previous. Mao was very dissatisfied and decided to start a “counter the Right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts” movement, simultaneously he gave a reminder to these officials who dissatisfied the Cultural Revolution and had “the right deviation” question.. On February 25, 1976, Huang Guofeng convened a meeting of the person in charge various provinces and military regions, said: “This meeting gives a reminder”, “must expose and criticize Comrade Deng Xiaoping's revisionist line”, requested everybody “to turn in the correct road”, “counter the Right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”.

 (1) On January 17, 1975, the fourth session of National People's Congress (still did not have state president). (2,3,4) Zhu De, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping in the fourth session of National People's Congress.
 (1) Xie Jingyi (stands behind Mao,tall), original Mao’s dance partner, Mao’s code clerk, In 1971 was deputy secretary of Tsinghua University CCP committee, member of the CCP Central Committee, secretary of Beijing CCP committee; Mao called her “little Xie”, she was not Political Bureau member but could attend the Political Bureau meeting. (2)Chi Qun, assistant section chief of Mao’s guards regiment (i.e. No.8341 army), rapidly raised to director of Tsinghua University revolutionary committee, vice-group leader of the State Council science and technology education group. (3) Liu Bing (front left, once was deputy secretary of Tsinghua University CCP committee) and his comrades, because they discontented Xie Jingyi and Chi Qun’s behavior in Qinghua University, wrote a letter by Deng to hand Mao. (4) On November 18, 1975, Tsinghua University’s meeting of interrogating Liu Bing and so on, Chi Qun, Xie Jingyi, Wu De and so on the chairman's podium, at the meeting read Mao’s comment: “Tsinghua University Liu Bing et al. wrote letter to accuse Chi Qun and little Xie. Their letter’s spearhead was against me. Tsinghua University involved question, is not isolated, is the current two political lines struggle's reflection.” Henceforth Jiang Qing and Wang Hongwen and so on brutally persecuted Liu Bing and so on, also waged to attack Deng. After the Tsinghua University launches the great debate, Deng proposed many times to see Mao, Mao said that “He was simply trying to debate with me, let me listen to him, I did not have the energy and talk too much with him, let him debate with Qinghua's teachers and students and the general populace. So long as the people listen to him, is good, then we clamp the handbag to walk. In my opinion, the people will not listen to him, reversing the verdicts does not have the support of the population.”
 (1) At the end of 1975 Mao and Jiang Qing launched“criticize Deng, counter the Right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”, the nation wide had to respond in abundance. (2) Beijing Pingju troupe's big-character posters, “counter the right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”. (3) “The Red Guards are now as much as ever brave, are the pioneers in criticizinf Deng”.
 (1) The People's Liberation Army “criticize Deng Xiaoping's revisionist line thoroughly”. (2) Scientific and technical circles “counter the Right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”. (3) Exhibition of “eulogize the Great Cultural Revolution, counter the right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”. 1976. Photo by Liu Yunpeng.
Around the country, factories, offices, schools, military and so on held meetingd “criticize Deng Xiaoping, counter the right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”.
After Mao's death, the CCP printed a variety of “Anti-Party elements Jiang Qing, Chi Qun and Xie Jingyi excerpts of speechs” for the criticizing use.
Various posters “criticize Deng Xiaoping, counter the Right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”.
Various posters “criticize Deng Xiaoping, counter the right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”.
Various books, songs and phonograph records “criticize Deng Xiaoping, counter the right deviationist trend to reverse correct verdicts”.
10. Xie Fuzhi and Kang died and were given grand memorial ceremony1975
Xie Fuzhi, born in 1909 in Hubei Province Huang’an (now Hong’an) county, in Cultural Revolution was the CCP Political Bureau member, director of Beijing Revolutionary Committee, State Council vice-premier concurrently Minister of Public Security. He charged inventory the“crimes” of Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing et al., according to Ministry of Public Security's material, Xie Fuzhi and so on incited entire total of 1853 case materials, involved 163 people. Which brought false charge against 457 cases of the central committee and local government and army leaders, involved 58 people; Other 1396 case materials of national Ministry of Public Security, bureau, and local branch false to charge against 105 people. On March 26, 1972, died of illness in Beijing.
Kang Sheng, born in 1898 in Shandong Jiao County, vice-president of the CCP Central Committee, member of the Standing CCP Central Political Bureau, Vice Chairman of the National People's Congress, Vice-chairman of the National Poeple's Political Consultative Committee, and so on important duty; He is the “expert of getting rid of dissidents” in all previous CCP’s political activities. Kang Sheng plundered the national all previous dynasties important cultural relics using the authority. Some were obtained from the Red Guards “broken four olds” and confiscates family's property, some were from the national cultural relic museum collection, only the copper seal and the signet made by the stone from Mt. Shoushan fujian and so on precious seals, had more than 400, if in the international market to sell, each of such which he himself said that “could become million wealthy man!” On December 16, 1975, died of illness in Beijing.
Xie Fuzhi and Kang Sheng were Mao’s trusted subordinates, were the major figure of launching “the Great Cultural Revolution”, overthrow Liu Shaoqi, manufacture civil war, the CCP Central Committee had held the very grand memorial service for them. After Mao’s death, latter in 1980, the CCP dismissed Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi's CCP membership, abolished the once the CCP giving them memorial speechs, and had recognized that they were “Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary bloc's principal offenders”.

 (1) Xie Fuzhi died, his memorial ceremony
 (1) In 1966, the back row were Xie Fuzhi, Mao Zedong, Ye Jianying. The front row were Wang Dongxing, the driver. They inspected the Red Guards. (2) Vice-Premier Xie Fuzhi and Zhou Enlai received the Romanian Communist party leader. (3) In 1967 “Vice-Premier Xie Fuzhi’s important speech to politics and law circles’ representatives of different factions rebellers”, he proposed that “smashed the judicial and public security organs”. (4) Xie Fuzhi and his wife Liu Xiangping. Liu Xiangping, born in 1920 in Shanxi Xie County, of member of the 10th session CCP Central Committee, in 1970 was the assistant director of No.1 Machine Industry Ministry revolutionary committee, in 1973 was minister of national Medical Ministry. In October, 1976, she was dismissed from office, in August, 1985, was dismissed the CCP membership. (5) Various newspaper issued the news “Beijing grandly grieve Comrade Xie Fuzhi assembly” .
 (1) On March 26, 1972, Xie Fuzhi died of illness, the memorial ceremony was grandly held on March 29 in the People’s Great Hall in Beijing. The Tiananmen Square, Xinhua gate and so on places the Chinese national flag flied at half-mast to express grief. Zhou Enlai delivered the memorial speech saying that Xie Fuzhi's death “was a heavy loss of our party our army our country various races people.” Prior to this, Zhou delived the memorial speech for Chen Yi “was a loss of our party and our army”. (2) In 1980, all publications published: The CCP Central decided that dismisse Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi's CCP membership, abolished their memorial speechs, recognized them for Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary bloc's principal offenders.
(2) Kang Sheng died, his memorial ceremony
 (1) In 1940s Kang Sheng in Yan’an was the CCP’s “counterrevolutionary suppression expert”, framed innumerable CCP cadres; At that time the CCP leaders such as Xiang Ying were strongly against Mao married Jiang Qing, but Kang Sheng promoted this wedding. (2) Kang Sheng and Zhou Enlai in Yan”an. (3) Mao and Kang Sheng. (4) In 1966 Kang Sheng, consultant of Central Cultural Revolution Group, agitated students to revolt ln Beijing University student's dormitory. (5) Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing.
 (1) Kang Sheng, Zhou, Mao, Lin Biao, Chen Boda. (2) Kang Sheng and Lin Biao in Tiananmen. (3) Kang Sheng and Zhou Enlai. (4) Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing.
 (1) In the August, 1973, the tenth CCP Congress chairman's podiums, from left: Vice-chairman Wang Hongwen, Chairman Mao, Vice- chairman Zhou gave the political report, Vice- chairman Kang Sheng. (2) Kang Sheng wrote to Jiang Qing's personal letter, about form a cabinet. (3) Ding Longjia & Ting Yu: “Kang Sheng and ’Zhao Jianmin miscarriage case’”. People's Publishing House, 1999. (5) "Kang Sheng and ‘Inner Mongolian Popular Party’ miscarriage case”. (5) “Zhou Enlai, Chen Boda, Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing And so on received Beijing Red Guards representatives’ important speechs”. August, 1967.
On December 16, 1975, Kang Sheng died of illness, People's Daily, Xinhua News Agency, Liberation Army Daily, Red Flag magazine and so on all CCP media's front page were “Chinese people's great proletarian revolutionary, honorable antirevisionism soldier Comrade Kang Sheng is immortal!” Reported that Kang Sheng’s death and Beijing's grand memorial service and funeral's detailed news. On December 21 many places the Chinese national flag flied at half-mast to express grief. More than 5000 cadre hold the memorial service, 15,000 person and various countries' diplomatic agents, the foreign friends offered condolences in the Palace of Culture.
Kang Sheng memorial service, Wang Hongwen managed, Ye Jianying delivered the memorial speech, Jiang Qing, Deng Xiaoping, Huang Guofeng, Zhang Chunqiao, Li Xiannian and all in Beijing's members of the CCP Central Committee participated.
In 1976, Xinhua News Agency issued Kang Sheng mourning pictures, comrade Kang Sheng always seriously dedicated work for the CCP's cause.” In 1980, all publications published: The CCP Central decided that dismisse Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi's CCP membership, abolished their memorial speechs, recognized them for Lin Biao and Jiang Qing counter-revolutionary bloc's principal offenders.