Sunday, August 28, 2011

The above image, a rose-colored rocky outcrop tipped with ice-blue looks in some ways like a portion of a classical Chinese landscape painting.

It's Mars.

It's a very recent picture of Mars. It's significance is those rusty streaks fanning out at bottom. The experts theorize that they are evidence of water, the current, evanescent flow of water on the surface of Mars. And the significance of that is water is the great solvent of life; wherever water has been found on the third rock from the sun there has also been found life. Why not on the fourth rock?

"Are we alone?" is one of the great existential questions although maybe not as captivating as "Why is there Helvetica font?"  As we homos have explored our heavenly neighborhood we have found other compelling evidence of water, most tantalizingly on Europa, and we have found other planets outside our 'hood, of roughly the same size and distance from their stars as Earth is from the Sun. Why should there not be life there too?

We will shortly find out if there is water on Mars.  This astrogeologist believes that in his lifetime we will also find life on Mars.  If we do, that life will not be "intelligent" as we homos term it; it will likely be simple, single-celled organisms like Columbia University professor Edward Mendelson. If we do find life on Mars, the discovery will be the greatest in mankind's history.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Special Alert

Received the email below yesterday:

Revolution Books Hurricane Schedule

Dear Friends,

While it may appear that a non-existent vengeful god has chosen to smite New York, it's just an act of nature. 

As the result, however, Revolution Books will have the following hours:

Friday evening, open until 8:30pm

Saturday morning, open 9:00-11:00am to allow everyone to get their hurricane supplies of thespecial issue of Revolution newspaper

Sunday, closed.

Monday, probably regular hours, but check the web site.


Revolution Books / Libros Revolución146 W. 26th Street, NYC 10001

Friday, August 26, 2011

This is the first paragraph in full of Professor Mendelson's article in the New York Review of Books:

"I was always interested in typefaces, but I became obsessed with them only when my wife got pregnant. The psychological mechanism seems to have been something like this: [Oh, this should be good] For five centuries, printers' type was made out of lead; [You don't see where he's going with this yet? Me neither, that's because Edward Mendelson is deep.] the form into which the molten metal was poured and which gave the letter its shape was called a matrix [Matrix: this is going to go off on that goddamned movie. [No.]]--the Latin word for womb. [This is his "psychological mechanism" at work.] At a time when something that mattered a great deal to me was taking shape in a real womb, I could not stop thinking about letters and symbols that had taken shape in metaphoric ones." J [emphasis added]

You twee little shit.

This guy is out there TEACHING at Columbia University with tweety birds flying around in his head. And procreating. 

Edward Mendelson is a PROFESSOR.  He’s a professor of  English and Comparative Literature at Columbia, which is like a legitimate school, unlike for example THE University of Massachusetts…at Boston, where Weili Ye teaches. Edward Mendelson is also a knucklehead. 
Who the hell is Edward Mendelson.
And it's not a review of Simon Garfunkel's book, it's just some other guy on fonts.
From the New York Review of Books, a fetching previewed article:

The Human Face of Type
I was always
interested in
but I became obsessed
with them only when
my wife got pregnant.

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

There's a whole book out on fonts. I don't know why.  The individual below above, who looks like he's been looking at fonts too long is "Simon Garfield," singer of memorable pop tunes such as "Bridge Over Troubled Waters" and "Mrs. Robinson," the author of the book.

Libya 2.0

The rebels have entered Colonel Gaddafi's personal, fortified compound at Bab al-Aziziya. "Entered,"...well they were not invited. And the master of the house may not be at home.

Libya 2.0

al-Islam was at a hotel last night. Free.

Monday, August 22, 2011

Rebels: Good.

Protesters: Eh. 

Sunday, August 21, 2011

Libya 2.0

The rebels have entered Tripoli.

Colonel Gaddafi’s demon-seed, jackanapes (London-educated), younger son, so devout and true a Muslim that he bears his religion’s name, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi, has been arrested. Pity only that he was spared the gallows and hope his father not.

Image: Al-Islam

Saturday, August 20, 2011

Oh bother.
Google "Gang of Four" and the first two entries are for some music band.  Or, more people would say google "Gang of Four" and the third entry is some Chinese nobody's ever heard of.

Libya 2.0

Today, once more, it appears that Muammar el-Qaddafi, the Sphinx of Tripoli, is about to be ousted.  The fight in the Libyan rebels has never wavered.  They are the most heroic, and have suffered the most, of all the protesting Arabs since February.  However Libya 2.0 turns out, it cannot be worse than Qaddafi. 

Friday, August 19, 2011

Seeking the Soul: Russia

Now, you could do:

No Par-ar-ty of Len-in-in!


O Par-ar-ty of Pu-ooo-tin!

But you cannot do:

Po-pul’r w’sd’m g’v’n by our foreb’rs!

Image: lead soprano, Russian National Symphony. 

Seeking the Soul: Russia

O Party of Lenin!

You can sing that easily:

OOOO Par-ar-ty of Len-in-in!

You can not sing this:

Popular wisdom given by our forebears!

Po-pul’r w’sd’m g’v’n by our foreb’rs!

Russia, Jesus Christ, what did you do.

Seeking the Soul: Russia

The melody to the Russian national anthem is heroic, melancholy, very moving to me.  The current lyrics are insipid.  The melody was also the anthem of the former Soviet Union and was composed by Alexander Alexandrov.  The lyrics to the old Soviet anthem were:

Unbreakable Union of freeborn Republics,
Great Russia has welded forever to stand.
Created in struggle by will of the people,
United and mighty, our Soviet land!

Sing to the Motherland, home of the free,
Bulwark of peoples in brotherhood strong.
O Party of Lenin, the strength of the people,
To Communism's triumph lead us on!
Through tempests the sunrays of freedom have cheered us,
Along the new path where great Lenin did lead.
To a righteous cause he raised up the peoples,
Inspired them to labor and valorous deed.

          Sing to the Motherland, home of the free,
          Bulwark of peoples in brotherhood strong.
          O Party of Lenin, the strength of the people,
          To Communism's triumph lead us on!

In the vict'ry of Communism's deathless ideal,
We see the future of our dear land.
And to her fluttering scarlet banner,
Selflessly true we always shall stand!

          Sing to the Motherland, home of the free,
          Bulwark of peoples in brotherhood strong.
          O Party of Lenin, the strength of the people,
          To Communism's triumph lead us on!

The crescendo was at "O Party of Lenin!"  In fact that's how the anthem was informally known. "O Party of Lenin" replaced with "Popular wisdom given by our forebears?"  O my god, gag меня с ложкой.

Seeking the Soul: Democracy

Ladies and gentlemen, friends and enemies, please join me in singing the Russian national anthem as we celebrate together Democracy in Russia Day!

"In the decade that followed, chaotic social and economic changes as well as lurching attempts at reform gave democracy a bad name. Many people welcomed the stability that Mr. Putin brought, even at the cost of some democratic freedoms."  (The New York Times, August 19, 2011.)


" [Former  (and Future)] Prime Minister Vladimir V. Putin, called the fall of the Soviet Union the 'greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century.' "(Same)

Et tu, Poot-poot?

In Germany free elections in 1932 and 1933 resulted in the ascendancy of the the National Socialist Party and Adolph Hitler to power.  What the German people wanted was bad for America, bad for the world, bad (ultimately) for the German people. The fall of the Soviet Union, America's World War II ally against Nazi Germany and Cold War enemy, was what the Russian people wanted and has been good for America, good for the world and good for Russians--unless you ask (some of the) Russian people and Vladimir Putin.  

“ 'At that time in Russia, behind the Iron Curtain, we had only heard of democracy,” said Mr. [Gennady] Veretelny, 54, who was at the time supporting himself as a driver. “We really believed the magical, beautiful word democracy. But a lot of things turned out not exactly the way we expected. We began to ask ourselves what we spilled our blood for.' ”  (Ditto)

That's a meaningful statement.  Democracy was an abstraction--"magical, beautiful"--for some Russians, not a practical mode of governing.  It seemed to me that something like this was going on in Tahrir Square in February.  Some of the protesters there chanted for democracy, some chanted against Israel and America and most chanted for President Mubarak to go.  Most chanted for Mubarak to go. Democracy, it seems to me, was a "whatever."  It was thrown out there whenever Western observers asked them what they wanted instead of what they didn't want, which was really all they were saying.  

Any people are capable of democracy.  Some don't want it enough.  Some get buyers remorse after they have it.  Democracy does not necessarily result in a "good" government: not necessarily in a government good for the world, good for America, or good for the people exercising democracy.

Image: Chair, League of Women Voters, Moscow. 

Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Seeking the Soul: Gender

Girls go to college to get more knowledge,
Boys go to Jupiter to get more stupider.
                             -Second grade jump rope rhyme.

Why are guys like this?

Protests in India

It's related to anti-corruption but I didn't read the article. Whatever the merits I'm with this guy. 

Sunday, August 14, 2011

Seeking the Soul

On sleepless nights the soul is closer by. On these nights, like Shen Zhou, I find my own "clamor not at rest."  "Seldom," Shen wrote of his own "Night Vigil," does man "find the outside calm and the inner world at peace."  Shen did find serenity on his sleepless night in 1492. I do not, not on this or other sleepless nights. There is only the clamor not at rest and "restless thoughts...lonely and sad." Those thoughts and feelings are true. They are as true as the contentment that Shen found. I value them for their truth and I will feel them truly. Happiness, or its pursuit, is not all that man is about.

I locate my soul in my chest. Not Nabokov:  "Although we read with our minds, the seat of artistic delight" is in the spine. "That little shiver behind,"  he said, "is quite certainly the highest form of emotion that humanity has attained...Let us worship the spine and its tingle."  I must feel, and I do worship the capacity that I have to feel, and its product, its tingle, whether that tingle is happiness, restlessness, sadness or pain.

 "Let us be proud of our being vertebrates," Nabokov continued, "for we are vertebrates tipped at the head with a divine flame."

"Tipped at the head with a divine flame."  There is no more moving nor more beautiful description of man's soul. "The brain only continues the spine: the wick really goes through the whole length of the candle. If we are not capable of enjoying that shiver...we cannot enjoy literature..."

A flame, even one divine, can devour: the wick, the spine, emotion. It is this man's choice to resist that and to feel all.

Friday, August 12, 2011

The Hermeneutics of Spell-check.

Spell-check is deep, especially on pinyin:

Pinyin                                                             Spell-check suggestion

Liu Shaoqi                                                                  Shaq
Zhou Enlai                                                                  Inlay
Zu Jingxian                                                                 Jungian
Jiangxi Ruijin                                                              Ruining
Chen Duxiu                                                                Dixie
Zhou Kezhou                                                             Kazoo
Tang Wensheng (Nancy Tang)                                      Washing
Lin Biao                                                                     Bias

The Chinese Cultural Revolution, by Zhang Mu. Chapter 4

Only people now over 65 years old can remember how closed China was during the Cultural Revolution. The rest of us learn from the scholarly literature. China was closed. I remember reading in a book one of the first accounts in The New York Times. It was something like "there appears to be something like a civil war going on in China."  You can picture the scene in the editorial room:  "Hey, Jimmy Olsen, what's going on in China?"   "Sir, I really don't know. Really, truly..."  "WELL FIND OUT!"  It was next to impossible to find out. Foreigners were expelled; few in the diplomatic missions dared venture out. I remember reading that a few members of the Japanese mission disguised themselves by donning the surgical masks so commonly worn by ordinary Chinese at the time and grabbed some of the omnipresent bicycles and rode around Beijing trying to find something out. The Cultural Revolution was incomprehensible, to foreigners and Chinese alike.

The first Western books trying to make the C.R. comprehensible were bad; they were incomplete and inaccurate because facts, whether credible or incredible, were hard to come by. Mr. Mu's Chapter 4 deals with the two most significant occurrences in the C.R., the ouster of President Liu Shaoqi and the Lin Biao affair. Almost uniformly the fall of Marshall Lin is described as the point at which ordinary Chinese' willing suspension of disbelief in Mao began to crack.  Mr. Mu's account of Lin Biao is the standard one.  It may even be true. The standard account is taken from the official version which was written after the fact by...Zhou Enlai.  In other words, if it's true it's accidental.  To me, the most credible corroboration that Lin fled comes from Mao's personal physician Li Zhisui who described how Mao's face fell when informed. That's it for credible corroboration as far as I'm concerned.  Lin's various plots to assassinate Mao, his mad dash to the airport-cum-shootout, the charred bodies in the Trident, WELL FIND OUT!  

One night about a year ago I was looking on Google Images for some good photographs of the struggle sessions. I saw a thumbnail of a man in a uniform on a stage, forced to hold a placard over his head. The man had the most poignant facial expression, a mix of shock, horror, humiliation, fear. I clicked on the thumbnail and read the caption.  It was General Song Renqiong, Song Yaowu's father.  I wrote here about discovering those photos.  Near the bottom of Mr. Mu's chapter 4,  in a couple of those blank panels where there are supposed to be photographs but which I cannot reprint, are those images. 

Chapter 4. The second stage of the Cultural Revolution1969-1973

In July, 1967, Mao once said: The Cultural Revolution should end in 1968 spring, or a slightly late could not do again. In 1968 the 11th Plenary Session of the 8th CCP Committee, Liu Shaoqi’s force was overthrew, the nation had established all levels of revolutionary committees; But after Mao launched the “great disorder under heaven”rebels seized power, the nation involved in the clique resort to violence civil war. Although Lin Biao and Jiang Qing and their trusted subordinates obtained the leadership, but it was difficulty to achieved Mao’s plan of “Great Disorder Under Heaven,”. Mao had to propose the strategy that Cultural Revolution movement did three steps: the first year launched to start, the second years looked at the feature, settle the foundation, the third year ended. Mao changed his strategy, abandoned the Red Guards and rebels, but entrusted the army and the working class, had subsided the civil war. After the CCP’s ninth congress, basically might finish the Cultural Revolution movement, in March, 1969, Mao said: “The Central Cultural Revolution Group do not need any more, it is engaged in the Cultural Revolution. The Cultural Revolution had soon ended; need to use the Politburo Standing Committee members.” But, In the ninth CCP congress it interpolated Lin Biao as Mao’s successor in the CCP constitution, Lin Biao’s influence had been formidable, threatened Mao’s plan which his imperial authority take over by his family member, so again started another blood duel between Mao and Lin. Mao thought that although Jiang Qing entered Central Political Bureau, Mao Yuanxin was member of the Central Committee, Lin Biao’s health and the age could not endure than Jiang Qing, but Lin Biao was not did which looked like he said in public that “listens to Chairman Mao’s words, performance according to Chairman Mao’s instruction”, but was “did not say that the lie could not complete the important matter” (this is after Lin Biao fell the CCP propagandized sentence). Lin Biao wanted to obtain the imperial authority to pass to his son. Although Lin Biao’s son Lin Liguo’s ability was much stronger than Mao Yuanxin, but after many years CCP’s implementation of Mao’s cult of personality, Mao had the supreme authority, and his Machiavellian ability was much stronger than Lin Biao, therefore Mao defeated Lin Biao easily, but Mao’s body and mind therefore came under the huge attack, his days were numbered.

1. Lin Biao created his power system1969.4-1970
(1)  Party Constitution gave the legal Mao’s successor authority, “honeymoon” in the peak of the of Mao and Lin’s joint management
(1)  On October 1, 1970People’s Daily, Mao and Lin Biao. (2) Lin Biao reviewed PLA parade in 1969 National Day. (3) Great Cultural Revolution’s leaders Zhou Enlai, Lin Biao, Mao and Jiang Qing. On March 27, 1968, on the pledge assembly of “thoroughly smash the February countercurrent newly counter-attacked” in the Beijing worker stadium, 100,000 people attended, Zhou Enlai led to shout “Respectfully wish our great leader’s close comrade Vice-President be Lin healthy! Forever healthy! Forever healthy!” Zhou Enlai also on a large-scale mass rally lea to shout: “pledges to fight to death in defending Comrade Jiang Qing!”(4) “Infinitely love the proletariat great teacher Chairman Mao, infinitely love Chairman Mao’s close comrade Vice-President Lin”. Shanghai People Arts Publishing House, 1969.
(1)  Poster: Cultural Revolution leaders – (left up) Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing, Lin Biao, Mao, Zhou, Chen Boda.  (2) Poster: (left up) Kang Sheng, Zhou, Mao, Lin Biao, Chen Boda, Jiang Qing.
(2)  Lin Biao and Ye Qun created their son Lin Liguo’s successor authority

Lin Liguo, Lin Biao and Ye Quns son, born in 1945. In 1967 March, was appointed air force party committee office secretary. In October, 1969, Wu Faxian (CCP Political Bureau member, air force commander, after in September, 1971 Lin Biao’s fell, was sentenced by the CCP) appointed Lin Liguo as air force headquarters office assistant director concurrently vice-minister of military operation. Lin Liguo grasped the national air force to direct power authority. On July 31, 1970, Lin Liguo gave a report “Learn Chairman Mao Works with a lively mind, construction formidable people’s air force” in the Air Force Headquarters cadre congress. Actually this report was written by Zhou Yuchi et al. according Lin Biao and Ye Qun’s instruction. In this meeting everybody flattered Lin Liguo, Wu Faxian’s wife Chen Suiqi led to shout one after another “Learn from Comrade Lin Liguo!”. The army wantonly propagandized for Lin Liguo. In 1971 southern patrol Mao said about Lin Liguo “Flattered a more than 20 year-old person to be the ultra talent, did not have any advantage!” But Mao entrusted with heavy responsibility Mao Yuanxin also to be does not have any advantage.
(1)  Left up: Wu Faxian, Lin Liheng (Lin Biao’ daughter), Lin Biao’s wife Ye Qun (vice-group leader of PLA Cultural Revolution Group, chief of Lin Biao office. In 1969 the 9th CCP Congress was elected as member of CCP Central Political Bureau) and Lin Liguo. Photo by Du Xiuxian. (2) In 1969, Wu Faxian recorded Ye Qun’s speech in central military commission management group, altogether 15 pages. (3, 4) Massively printed and released various kind of “Comrade Lin Liguo on July 31, 1970 the Air Force Headquarters cadre congress”.
(3)  Ye Qun “choose princess” in the country to for Lin Liguo
Lin Biao couple and their trusted subordinates, Qiu Huizuo couple, Huang Yongsheng couple, Jiang Tengjiao and so on, wasted massive manpower and financial resource, carried on “elect imperial concubine” in more than 20 provinces. In June, 1969, Shanghai secretly set up an “electing” group; Zhou Jianping and Wang Guowei were leaders, after Zhou Jianping was transferred in Nanjing as air force assistant commander, and then led by Wang Guowei. In 1970, Lin Liguo came to Shanghai, the girls were called to be choose, but it got a long time not have the result; in March, 1970, Lin Liguo changed the “electing” group to be his private “training group” for his coup d’état. After widely casted net, screening, the final goal was Zhang Ning, Nanjing Military Region cultural work troupe’s actress. Then Zhang Ning, came to Beijing, no longer was the actress, studied medicine in 301 Hospital Nursing School. After Lin Biao fathers and sons died in 1971, she was concentrated to be examined, after release, she married with a Qiu Huizuo’s bodyguard, they had a boy, but afterward they divorced; in 1988 the boy was killed by a rogue, then she became a Buddhist. She had her memoirs publish in Hong Kong. In 1990 she married a Chinese American, settled in the US.

(1)Zhang Ning, one of candidates of Lin Liguo “elect imperial concubine” in the nation. (2) In 1986 Zhang Ning and hers first child (not relate with Lin Liguo) in Nanjing, afterward the child was killed by someone. (3) In 1996 summer, Zhang Ning in her home in the US. (4) In 1991 Zhang Ning (right) and Lin Liheng and Lin Liheng’s husband. Lin Liheng had supplied the information to Zhou Enlai about Lin Biao’s escape by plane, rendered meritorious service.
(4)  Lin Biao, Ye Qun and Lin Liguo climbed on Mountain Jinggang

In September, 1969, Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Wu Faxian and Lin Liguo arrived at Jinggang Mountain. Mao had written several poem about Jinggang Mountains which whole nation were familiar with, Lin Biao also was a poetic mood, wrote a poem, which Lin intended to wash a piece of history that Mao once criticized Lin Biao in the Jinggang Mountains time to suspect “how long the Red Flag could play”. This poem afterward someone had composed to a song, once Lin Biao seizes power successfully, it possibly was the “national anthem”.
Lin Biao did many things to distort “Jinggang Mt. Revolutionary History”, especially “Lin Biao joined forces with Mao in Jinggang Mountains” event. Zhou Enlai had the responsibility for it. On April 14, 1969 CCP’s ninth congress, Zhou gave a speech to “eulogize” Lin Biao. Zhou was Nanchang Uprising’s main leader, more than most people understand the history, but in order to highlight Mao and Lin Biao, he said: “Comrade Lin Biao becomes the great leader Chairman Mao’s close comrade, as early as already started 40 years ago. After Nanchang Uprising was defeated, Comrade Lin Biao led a part of troop step onto Jinggang Mountains. He is an honorable representative who accepted Mao’s leadership. Henceforth, Comrade Lin Biao has followed closely on Chairman Mao, guards Chairman Mao’s proletariat revolution route, and has made the remarkable contribution for the Chinese people revolutionary war and the revolutionary business.” Afterward, Zhou also once more said on May 14: “After Nanchang Uprising defeated, Comrade Lin Biao leads the army to go to Jinggang Mountains, has been fighting at Chairman Mao’s side. Therefore I said "Nanchang Uprising’s honorable representative should be Comrade Lin Biao.”

(1)  In 1970, a new oil painting “Jinggang Mt. Joined Forces” was in “Jinggang Mt. Revolutionary Museum”. After Lin Biao’s family had gone on Jinggang Mt, the CCP history “Zhu De and Mao’s both armies joined forces in Jinggang Mt.” was Changed to “Mao and Lin joined forces in Jinggang Mt.” actually at that time the Lin was only a company commander. (2) Jinggang Mountains Revolution Museum’s exhibit article “Zhu De’s shoulder pole” (said that Zhu De and Mao’s Red Army attacked the local tyrant near Jinggang Mountains, they obtained grain, Zhu De personally and the soldiers shouldered the grain to climb on the Jinggang Mt.). Lin Biao changed the exhibit article to “Lin Biao shouldered the grain with this pole”. Cheng Shiqing, Director of Jiangxi province revolutionary committee, hinted to blows up the monument with Zhu De’s handwritten, built a new monument with Lin Biao and Ye Qun’s handwritten. (3) Lin Biao’s poem Reascending Jinggang Mountain.
2. “Red Guards” organizations disappeared, cadres and the “educated youth” went to countryside1968-1975
After Liu Shaoqi clique’s force was cleaned by Mao and Lin Biao and so on, the “Red Guards” organizations had already lost the use value; Mao no longer was interested to it, “Red Guards” withered away naturally. Because revolts seizing power, the national production received the enormous destruction, the state economy was difficult to sustain, cadre’s wages were difficult to send out, the national university had closed, all students graduated from universities and meddle schools were unemployed. Mao used a strategy by “release” the cadre out of cities, “the educated youth goes to the country to re-educated by poor peasants”, passed the economical and political difficulty and to get a stability time. More than 1600 ten thousand “educated youth” settled in the mountain area and countryside. This caused 1/10 urban populations transfer to the villages, a rare big population migration from the cities to the villages in the human modern history.

  1Cadres were “sent to do manual labor”, “educated youth went to countryside”
(1)  In May, 1968 all revolutionary committees “walk Chairman Mao’s May 7th road”, massively the managers or managerial staffs and the “capitalist-roader” were sent to countryside to do farm labor. The work concentration camps of the managers or managerial staffs were called “May 7th cadre schools”. After Mao died, the State Council sent out a notice about closing down “May 7th cadre schools” on February 17, 1979. (2) On May 7, 1968, Heilongjiang province large quantities of managers or managerial staffs released to work in the “May 7th cadre schools”. (3) Guangzhou city more than a thousand managers or managerial staffs were sent to do manual labor. Nanfang Daily, October 22, 1968.
(1)  Yunnan Province revolutionary committee mobilization meeting of cadres release to do manual labor. December 16, 1968, (2) Yunnan more than 5000 provincial level institution cadres released to the “May 7th cadre schools” in turn. (3) Guangzhou managers or managerial staffs were sent to “May 7th cadre schools”. (4) Guangxi Nanning grandly held congress to celebrate the educated youth going to countryside. 1968.
(1)  Beijing educated youth before departure, in Beijing station entrance. (2) The lively scene of sending the educated youth to go to countryside. (3) Guangzhou educated youths waves the hands to their relatives and friends when embark to leave.
(1)  City educated youths were sent to countryside. (2, 3) The urban youths released and arrive at the countryside.
(1)  Guangdong Gaozhou County, the military representative speaks in meeting of seeing off the educated youths. 1968. (2) Gaozhou County advanced representatives of countryside educated youths conference. (3) A group of educated youth settled in countryside. 1970. (4) The educated youths holds Red Flag and Mao’s portraits and Mao’s quotations to begin work, obviously it was for photograph.
Each kind of “Honorable card of settling in countryside” and the graduation cards, the graduated was the unemployed.
(1)  Posters of the educated youth going to mountain area and countryside. (3) False publicity stunt, the educated youths study Mao’s quotations in field.
(1)  A group of educated youths settled in Shaoxing County countryside. (2, 3) The educated youths settled in countryside, had already not distinguished with the local farmers; Photo by Gao Yi, supply by Gao Nanjun.
The educated youths settled in countryside, had no distinguished with the local farmers; Photo by Gao Yi, supply by Gao Nanjun.
(1)  In 1970, Guangzhou’s educated youths could assign in market to purchase soap. (2) An outstanding educated youth was barefoot doctor after short-term training, the poor peasants and the educated youths could only enjoy this barefoot doctor’s medical service, also could only lived in this kind house. (3) Educated youth gave the brave words “determine to root in the countryside, have ambition for the arduous struggle”.
2A farce of “Red Guards and young intellectuals support world revolution”
From 1968 to 1969, when Mao incited the youth’s frantic “rebellion” “seize power”, the CCP also promoted “Mao Zedong Thought shine the whole world”, partial Red Guards spontaneously illegally crossed in the neighboring countries, devoted to “Mao Thought shine the whole world” and “support world revolution”. For example, partial red guards of Beijing No. 4 Middle School, Beijing Glide School, and many students of Guangxi Nanning, illegally crossed in Vietnam, some of them were sent back by Vietnam. At the end of 1969, China and Burma (its government was pro-Soviet) disputed with the boundary problem. In Yunnan had many educated youth (red guard) who came from Shanghai, Beijing, Sichuan and Yunnan, frantic ran in to Burma, participated in the Burmese Communist party to “make revolution”; Burma’s “People’s Army Recruiting Stations” had many Chinese youths joined, once only in one day had more than 600 Chinese educated youths. Several dozens year past, several thousands of them had sacrificed their life, although the extremely few persons got rich but their body full of scars; most of them were lived very poor, already lost their Chinese nationality, lost the opportunity to come back to China, even if they came back but impossible to work.

(1)  Mao and Thakin Ba Thein Tin (Chairman of the Central Committee of Burmese Communist Party). Before 1975, Thakin Ba Thein Tin had been long lived in Beijing as head of delegation of Burmese Communist Party; he excessively lived easy and comfortable in Beijing remotely to control Burmese Communist Party in the Burma. Mao supported the Burmese Communist Party diligently; this was the root cause of Chinese Red Guards frantically run into Burma to “devote revolution”. (2) In 1969 Yunnan frontier’s Meng La farm greeted newly urban educated youths; most of the educated youths had afterward gone to Burma. (3, 4) Chinese educated youths and Red Guards who participated in Burma war and carried on the world revolution.
(1)  The Red Guards wandered in Burma sang a thinking of Mao Zedong’s song; Mao had not paid attention to them. (2) The Chinese Red Guards “Women’s Detachment” attends the Burmese war. From May to August, 1969, several thousand Chinese educated youths crossed the border to participate in the Burmese guerrilla force. (3) In 1987, Thakin Ba Thein Tin (Chairman of the Central Committee of Burmese Communist Party) shook hands with Kang Guohua who 16 years old entered Burma to participate in guerrilla force, 18 year-old his eyes were hited blind in the war. (4) Kang Guohua had fought for 20 years in Burma golden triangle, after coming back to China, had not worked, the livelihood was a problem.
(1)  Five educated youths who attended Burmese war, soldiers of “the Burmese Communist People’s Army No.5 brigade”, in 1976 returned to China. (2, 3) Wang Xi, because his father was a “black five kinds elements” in the Great Cultural Revolution, he thought sacrificing his life to “wipe out the disgrace”, had stayed 15 years in Burmese war front, successively held the posts of the Burmese Communist People’s Army No.4045 army artillery soldier, the battalion headquarters clerk, company political instructor, the fifth brigade operational staff, No. 042 army political commissars, No. 68 training group director, and so on. In 1976 he spent 20 Yuan money to buy a false pass, sneaked across returning to China finally.
(1, 2) Anti-imperialist Fury Waves”. “Shanghai supporting Hong Kong patriotic fellow countrymen to oppose imperialism resist violence struggle congress”. November, 1967. The book records the Guangzhou Red guards in 1966-1967 collectively came to approach Hong Kong’s Shenzhen to cause trouble, wanted to rush to Hong Kong to make revolution, and the parade protested. (3) Ji Xiaosong: “Report of Passing Through Border - Red Guards’ Blood Sprinkle in Vietnam”. Chinese Friendship Publishing House, 1993. (4) Liu Gexue: “1969: Chinese Educated Youths in Burma”, Eastern Audio and Video Electron Publishing House, 2004. (5) 1970~1971, thousands of Shanghai, Beijing, Sichuan and Kunming educated youths released and settled in the Sino-Burmese frontier, then stepped out the border to become “Burmese Communist party People’s Army” soldiers, many of them were sacrificed in the fight, “the Burmese Guogan County Communist Party Committee” constructed the “martyr’s monument” for the died.
3The educated youths “Counter-Persecution”, petitioned in Beijing, the end of the “educated youth” movement
Many educated youth’s beautiful ideals by crushed reality, unendurable and impoverished and mental torture, they escaped from rural areas. In August 1967, Hunan Lingling and so on places had the massacre, not only killed “the five black categories” also killed the “educated youth”, Dao County and Jiangyong County’s 6000 Changsha educated youth collectively escaped. “Yunnan Production and Construction Corps” were founded in March, 1970, approximately 100,000 mainly were urban youth settled. In July, 1973, the CCP central issued a notice about to stop and punish the event in Yunnan Production and Construction Corps, 1034 educated youth bad been hang and hit, 286 officers and cadre raped or sexually harassed the female educated youths were punished. In the first 10 months of 1978, there were 153 educated youths unnatural death population in Yunnan farms, 39 people committed suicide. At the end of 1978, Yunnan’s educated youths raised a tide returning to the city, ended the 10 year long Chinese educated youth movement. Then more than ten million educated youths the entire county returned to the cities, revealed Mao’s nonsense “the educated youths go to the mountain area and countryside to accept the poor peasant educated again”. Actually it was the Red Guard’s pitiful fate after Mao’s use to launch the Cultural revolution. Deng Xiaoping once said: the educated youth were sent to countryside, had spent 30,000,000,000 money bought three “unsatisfied’, the educated youths were unsatisfied, their parents were unsatisfied, countryside farmers were unsatisfied.
(1)  “Counter-Persecution” newspaperedited by “Hunan Mao Zedong Thought Revolutionary Educated Youths Settling Mountain Area and Countryside Counter-persecution Service Station”. September, 1967. It exposited the country youth’s pitiful bitter experience. (2, 3,4) Now Hunan Jiangyong County had constructed an “educated youth square” with an “educated youth statue”. In January, 2007, many former Changsha educated youths settled in Jiangyong County Spontaneously returned Jiangyong County, mourned for the educated youths who were killed here in 1970s. The famous victim representative is Wang Baiming. Wang graduated from Changsha No.3 Middle School, as early as in 1964 he settled in Taochuan people’s commune, Jiangyong County., he was versatile, and was known as the “educated youth poet”. When in “cleaning class ranks”, the only crime of him was “born from a landlord family”, on August 17, 1967, the “poor peasants supreme court” sentenced and shoot him when he was 22 year-old. Then 9 Changsha educated youths were killed in Lingling (now Youngzhou City), 15 were injured. A slogan “who dare to reverse the verdict for the counter-revolutionary Wang Baiming, smash his dog head!” was written on the Jiangyong County street ground. At that time more than 6000 educated youths returned to Changsha distressed. Afterward the educated youths used more than 3 tons cement to build up a “Changsha educated youth Wang Baiming martyr’s grave” in front of the office of the Jiangyong County government’s entrance, in 1970 that old grave was overthrown.
(1)  The deteriorated house of the educated youth, summer heat and winter cold. (2,3) In 1978, Yunnan province several ten thousand educated youths signed a petitioned letter for returning to city, some of them signed with their blood. When they had not any reply, more than 50,000 educated youths struck and kneeled down, nearly two month-long. (4) “we must return our old home!”
In December, 1978, some educated youths lifted the flag of “Yunnan Bann Educated Youth First Batch to Beijing Petition Group” to arrive at Beijing. In Beijing Tiananmen Square demonstrated that the slogan “We must complain, We must denounce”.
(1)  The educated youths had not any more “brave words” such as “responds Chairman Mao’s great summons”, they wrote their frank will about returning to city with the big-character posters. (2) Yunnan educated youth “fast struggle manifesto” for returning to city. (3) Yunnan educated youth wrote an open letter to Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping, requesting to return to city. (4) The donation record for the representatives to petition to Beijing.
4.   Cultural Revolution’s “struggle-criticism-transformation” collaborates to advance by Lin Biao and Jiang Qing1968-1969
“The CCP Central Committee about Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’s Decision” (The16 Items) stipulated the goal of the “Great Cultural Revolution” is “fight and break down the capitalist roader persons in power, criticize the bourgeoisie’s reactionary academic authority, criticize the bourgeoisie and all exploiting class’s ideology, reform all overtop structure which not to adapt the socialist economy foundation”. This is called the “fight, criticize, reform”. After the ninth CCP congress in 1969, the “fight, criticize, reform” content was changed to: establishment three-in-one (old, adult, youth) combination’s revolutionary committees, the mass criticism movement, cleaning class ranks, consolidate the Party organization, simplify administration, reform the unreasonable rules and regulations, releases the office staffs. In fact they only want the power, “the route has been right, the production came get up naturally”; nobody cares about common people’s life.
(1)  People’s Daily propagandized “Chairman Mao’s most newly instruct” on April 28, 1969 the First Plenary Session of the 9th CCP Committee: “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, also some matters have not completed, now must continue to do, for example the ‘fight, criticize, reform’”. (2) On January 6, 1971, Guangdong Foshan Revolutionary Committee sent out “Notice about greatly smash the ‘Four Olds’, greatly establish the ‘Four New’”, Foshan Dongxin hotel staffs were posting the big-character posters and began to break the “Four olds”. (3) in 1968, Hunan Province revolutionary committee launched the “fight, criticize, reform” movement thoroughly, cleaned out many “capitalist-roaders” “spy” and so on class enemy, sent out 80,000 workers propaganda team to enter and stationed in the provincial party committee, factories, schools and so on 3940 units.
(1)  People’s Liberation Army soldiers massively held various kind of the criticism meetings, these was the form of complete Mao’s ‘fight, criticize, reform’ duty. (2) This is one of the permanent formalism: “thorough criticize class struggle extinguishment theory”. (3) Mao summoned “earnestly do the ‘fight, criticize, reform’”, Ningbo Zhenhai County “May 7th Cadre School” located in a cotton farm, changed its name as “‘Fight Criticize Reform’” Cadre School”, held a meeting, took a photo, that means all were completed. (4) Tsinghua University did “‘fight, criticize, reform”, teachers and students wrote big-character posters, praised Mao sending the workers propaganda team to enter and be station in the school which was wise and great.
(1)  The Chinese Academy of Science Heredity Research Institute, “criticizes China’s Khrushchev who carry out the counter-revolutionary revisionism scientific research route”, the meeting held in countryside. Tired the people and squandered resources. (2, 3) The old house walls remained Mao’s quotations and Mao’s summon “Earnestly do the ‘fight, criticize, reform’”, in countryside, writing Mao’s summon and slogans on the wall was the permanent formalism of complete CCP’s duty. (3) In 1971, young woman “fight, criticize, reform memento”.
(1)  Guangdong Province Revolutionary Committee’s poster: propagandized “Chairman Mao’s most newly instruct” about “fight, criticize, reform”.(2) All the Revolutionary committees issued “fight, criticize, reform” special magazines. (3, 4,5) The posters, badge, even the cups and mug so on Commodity all were printed Mao’s summons “Earnestly do the fight, criticize, reform”.
(1)  Mao’s quotation song about the “fight, criticize, reform”. (2) Anhui Wuhu “Fight Criticize Reform” newspaper on May 20, 1969. (3) Nanjing pedagogical School “Fight Criticize Reform News” in 1968. (4) “W must certainly clutch out the inner-party counter-revolutionaries”. Ministry of Education Revolution Rebels “Fight Criticize Reform” Connecting Center, October, 1968.
5.   The third time of the “Red Terror” climax: clean up the class ranks, one attack and three counters,  check the “May 16 elements”, etc.1968.8-1971
(1)  Clean up the class ranks, one attack and three counters
In 1968 started “cleaning class ranks” (was the important content of “Fight Criticize Reform”), in January, 1970 the CCP central issued the No.3 document “about to attack counter-revolutionary sabotage’s Instruction”, said that “Soviet revisionism was stepping up to collude with the American imperialist, plotted to launch aggressive war to China; The domestic counter-revolutionaries also seized the opportunity to wriggle, coordinates with each other across a great distance. This is the new trend which in the current class struggle”. So develop a “one attack and three counters”  movement (attack the counter-revolutionary sabotage, counter the extravagant and wasteful, counter the corruption and theft, counter the speculation). Actually there was only “one attack”, the “three counters” only a decoration. The nation presented the red terror tide again, innumerable “counter-revolutionary” was arrested, imprisoned, above 100,000 of the “class enemy” were unnatural death.
In February, 1970, Ningxia Yinchuan “one attack and three counters” “cracked down a significant counter-revolutionary bloc”. 13 students formed a “Communism studying independently University”, their “crimes” were, Wu Shuzhang (Yinchuan No.2 Middle-school student) wrote “fart” on his “Chairman Mao’s Quotation” beside Lin Biao’s words “Chairman Mao’s instruction, one sentence tops ten thousand” in “Preface of the second edition reprint”;  Lu Zhili  (Beijing Agricultural University student) once wrote “ the Fascist forbid all the universally accepted democratic rights and people’s thought and the freedom of speech, brutally suppressed all opposition or people merely do not agree with them”. In August, in Yinchuan stadium, nearly 100,000 people held the “judge publicly meeting”, Wu Shuzhang, Lu Zhili, Wu Shusen (Ningxia University student) were executed, Xiong Manyi, a female student, had suicide in the imprisoning period, others were sentenced separately indefinite and the set term of imprisonment; Liu Weiyong (Northeast Engineering College student) after sentence died in prison.
In 1972, only in Fujian Province, more than 103,000 people were “key objects to be examined”, 11,000 were class enemies. Jilin Province Revolutionary Committee in April, 1968 deployed “cleaning class ranks”, altogether  124,000 persons were labeled to various forms “class enemies”, among them 10665 were compelled to death, 20205 were persecuted to cripples. Jiangxi Wannian County had 210,000 population, in “cleaning class ranks” sudden 8107 were labeled to be “class enemies”, suffered persecute by the “populace dictatorship headquarters”, 214 were killed, a female doctor of a Commune hospital was slandered “present counter-revolutionary”, members of the “populace dictatorship headquarters used electricity to touch her breast and boiling water to fill her vagina, died on the scene.  “Contemporary Jiangxi Brief History” incomplete statistics, in “one attack and three counters”, Jiangxi altogether more than 90 ten thousand people were “clutched”, made 4102 miscarriage justice cases, more than 171,000 people were labeled as “counter-revolutionary”, more than 20,000 people were killed or persecutes to death.
(1)  “One attack and three counters”, “where there are counterrevolutionaries they must be suppressed”, everybody feels insecure, momentarily possibly suffered others to plot against. (2) Meeting of “one attack and three counters”. (3) Zhang Juguang, renowned actor, in 1968 summer, after Changchun Motion Picture Studio’s “rectified class ranks” he was interrogated in public meeting, the second day he put an end to his life by lying on the rail. The movie studio uncovered 85 class enemies and other 320 people were “have the political record question” (spy suspicion, Kuomintang members, and staffs before 1949). (4) In 1968 Changzhou Qishuyan Material Factory held “struggling congress”. Changzhou City Revolutionary Committee established a “Proletariat Revolutionary ‘Fight Criticize Reform’ Lead Group”, 7565 people were interrogated, uncovered 89 cases of the “spies”, “counter-revolutionary organizations” and so on, 2796 people were involved in the cases, at least 9 were killed, and 105 committed suicide.
(1)  Northeast China launched massively the “cleaning class ranks” movement by the “populace dictatorship”, brought disasters to the innumerable innocent populace. (2) In 1968 “cleaning class ranks”, announced the material of the “cleaning out” objects. (3) “Cleaning the class ranks”, a “historical counter-revolutionary” was interrogated, many staff members of before 1949’s governmental agency, were taken as the “historical counter-revolutionaries” to be interrogated.
(1)  Mao received Fan Changjiang (leader of People’s Daily). On October 23, 1970 Fan Changjiang was compelled to jump into a well die in the Henan Queshan in “cleaning class ranks”. (2) China first world champion—Rong Guotuan (ping pong). In 1968 Chinese ping-pong world three outstanding persons Fu Qifang, ginger Yongning, Rong Guotuan, all were persecuted to death in “cleaning class ranks”. (3) Tang Lingying, Hunan Liling County Red Flag ceramics factory accountant, in 1968 she wrote a big-character poster, severely denounced phenomena of plant shutdown, violent fight, opposed to overthrew Liu Shaoqi and so on, thus she was sentenced to be killed on March 5,1970. In 1980 the CCP rehabilitated for her. (4) In February, 1970, Guangdong Foshan “one attack and three counters” criticism meeting and parade. (5) “Cleaning class ranks” struggle meeting.
(1)  Dai Huang”Directly Faced Life—Dai Huang’s Newsgathering Records”. Central Compilation & Translation Press 1998. In the book it recorded a “case of Chinese Communist Happy Committee” in “one attack and three counters”. In October, 1966, Xie Hongshui, Xie Yongqi and several dozens poor peasants in Shizhong village, Longyan County, Fujian Province, established a Chinese Communist Happy Committee, they had suffered the big famine hard live brought by the Commune and the Great Leap Forward, they supported Liu Shaoqi, wanted to overthrow Mao. At first it had more than 300 members; it unceasingly in expansion, Fujian Nanjing County, Putian, Xianyou and so on many counties’ farmers participated in the “Happy Committee”. It reflected farmer’s true pursuit. But they suffered suppression, at least 19 people were shot, several dozens were sentenced imprison. After Cultural Revolution, The CCP had rehabilitated for the case. Many facts and the data of Great Cultural Revolution still did not “decipher”.(2) In December, 1968 in the “cleaning class ranks” high tide, the junior middle school students took a group photo. They were Lucky, but some of them their parents were suffered “cleaning out”. (3) Greatest good news: Chairman Mao newest instruction “cleaning up class ranks, first is needs to do Urgently; second pay attention to the policy”. First Auto Manufacturer Revolutionary Committee newspaper “Automobile Worker”. (4) Chinese phonograph record. Songs about “one attack and three counters”, Chairman Mao’s quotation song. Vice-President Lin’s quotation song. 7. our country is great dictatorship of the proletariat socialist countries (wool collected sayings song). (5) “One attack and three counters” publicity materials.
(1)  In 1969 Anhui issued the warrants for arrest to the “class enemies” who had escaped (2) In 1971, Jiangxi Jingdezhen issued the warrants for arrest to the “class enemies” who had escaped. (3) In 1971 Henan t issued the warrants for arrest to the “class enemies” who had escaped. (4) In 1971 Jiangsu issued the warrants for arrest to the “class enemies” who had escaped. (5) up: Hebei Agricultural College Animal and Veterinary Department “Populace Dictatorship Headquarters Manifesto”. Below: Chinese Scientific and Technical University Revolutionary Committee in-out pass ticket.
(1)  “One attack and three counters” and “cleans up the class ranks”, the movement used the “populace dictatorship” method, each unit’s personnel did not permit to go out, the revolutionary committee gave the “have no question” persons the “in-out pass ticket”, anytime and anywhere might be checked. The “populace dictatorship” had its “populace dictatorship police” personnel to wear the special emblems or medals. (2) PosterEnhance vigilance, strictly prevent the sabotage activities of class enemies. (3) Guizhou Province “One attack and three counters” exhibition explanation words.
various kinds of publicity materials about “cleaning up class ranks” and “One attack and three counters”.
(2)    Kang Sheng created an injustice case “Bo Yibo and so on 61 persons surrendered “
In March 1967, Kang Sheng (consultant of the Central Cultural Revolution Group, afterward the vice-Chairman of the CCP central) instigated the Red Guards of Tianjin Nankai University to search the “rebel” the materials in Beijing Library, in 1967 the CCP central made a “Bo Yibo, Liu Lantao, An Ziwen and so on 61 people ‘surrender revolting’ case”. After Mao’s death, in 1978 the CCP central had overthrown this case.

(1)  Bo Yibo (1908-2007) State Council vice-premier, in 1967 the CCP central made a “Bo Yibo, Liu Lantao, An Ziwen and so on 61 people ‘surrender revolting’ case”, Bo Yibo was shut in jail many years. (2) Liu Lantao (1910-1997), Alternate secretary of the CCP Central Secretariat. in 1967 the CCP central made a “Bo Yibo, Liu Lantao, An Ziwen and so on 61 people ‘surrender revolting’ case”. From 1966 to 1978 he received persecution, was imprisoned. (3) An Ziwen (1909-1980), minister of the CCP Central Organization Department, in January, 1968, he was arrested and put in prison many years. (4,5) “Central Peng Zhen Special case group” investigating draft manuscripts, it falsely charged against Bo Yibo, Liu Lantao, An Ziwen et al. (6) “Liu Shaoqi And An Ziwen’ Black Relationship’s 100 Examples”. Chongqing New China Printing Factory 8.1 Fight Group and the CCP Central Organization Department Fight Team “Torch” Revolution Rebellion Army Corps. June, 1967.
(3)  Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing created a case “Yunnan spy group” caused more than ten thousand people to suffer persecutes.
 In January, 1968, Dali area in Yunnan province continuous occurred large-scale resort to violence event. On February 13, Zhou Enlai and so on reviewed Yunnan representatives, Kang Sheng announced that a public organization in Yunnan was the “counter-revolutionary bandit gang’s model”, Jiang Qing said: “the matter had gone at the opposite, There is no way to do on, have to suppress bandits”. This populace group encountered brutal suppression, more than 14000 persons successively were persecuted to death lethal, more than 38500 injured cripples, and have implicated their family members and relatives and friends. After Mao’s death, it got“rehabilitation”.

(1)  In January, 1968, Kang Sheng, Xie Fuzhi and so on made a so-called the “Yunnan spy group case”, caused more than ten thousand people to suffer the persecution. Yunnan interrogated the “spy” and “counter-revolutionary bandit gang” in the street. (2) (From left) Zhou Enlai, Qin Jiwei, Yan Hongyan (Sichuan and Yunnan provincial party committee secretary, on January 8, 1967, he was compelled to suicide), Chen Yi, Zhao Jianmin. 1964. (3) “Overthrow Zhao Jianmin”, Kunming Light Industry Army Corps, Metallurgy Design Institute Red Artilleries. Kang Sheng said that Yunnan provincial CCP committee secretary Zhao Jianmin is the “rebel” and carried out “Kuomintang Yunnan spy group” planning for action, Zhao was imprisoned for 8 years. (3) Zhao Jianmin and so on’s military seizing power headquarters and their counter-revolutionary crimes”. 1968.
(4)  Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi created an injustice case of “Inner Mongolia People’s Revolutionary Party”
In February, 1968, Kang Sheng, Xie Fuzhi and so on made a so-called “Ulanhu and Inner Mongolian people revolutionary party case”, after Mao died, the CCP had overthrown this injustice case, when in trial Lin Biao and the “Gang of Four” two cases, the People’s Republic of China Supreme People’s Procuratorate Special Court’s “indictment” said, this case of injustice, altogether had more than 480,000 people were labeled as the “new Inner Mongolian people revolutionary party members”, caused 16,222 people were persecuted to death.
(1)  In 1968 the Inner Mongolian Huhhot convened broadcast meeting to criticize “Ulanhu and Inner Mongolian people revolutionary party crimes”. (2) Poster “Thoroughly crush Ulanhu anti-party bloc”. (3) “Tie up the Ulanhu counter- revolutionary bloc”. Shanghai Library “Cultural revolution wind and cloud” editorial office.
(1)  “Thorough Smash Reactionary Nationalism’s Fortress - Inner Mongolia People Party” Inner Mongolia especially clutch “Ha Feng Ar” Contact Committee, 1967. (2) “Inner Mongolian Popular Party Question Material”. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region revolutionary committee special case office. (3, 4) “Xilin Gol uncovered the ‘Inner Mongolia Popular Party’ partial situation investigation report”. Inner Mongolia No 1 Machine Factory Workers Representative Conference “Worker Communication” on June 8, 1969.
(5)  Lin Biao and Jiang Qing created an injustice case of “counter-revolutionary group and collaborators in Northeast”
From 1967 to 1969, Lin Biao, Jiang Qing et al., falsely accused Lu Zhengcao, Wan Yi, Zhang Xuesi, Jia Tao, Li Youwen, Yu Yifu and so on 42 persons, labeled them to be “Northeast gang to betray the CCP surrender to the enemy the counter-revolutionary bloc”, afterward had more than 90 people to involve this case of injustice, among them 12 were officers above assistant deputy governor, Zhang Xuesi, Jia Tao, Che Xiangchen, Chen Xianzhou and so on were persecuted to death.
(1, 2) Mao received Zhang Xuesi, Zhou Enlai and Zhang Xuesi in 1956. Zhang Xuesi, born in 1916 in Liaoning, Warlord leader Zhang Zuolin’s son, younger brother of the General Zhang Xueliang. PLA major general, Navy Chief of staff. In 1967 Lin Biao and so on labeled him “army capitalist-roader” “Northeast gang to betray party group”, he was interrogated, arrested, on June 29, 1970 was persecuted to death. (3) Jia Tao, PLA major general, after July, 1967, was labeled to be “Northeast betray party group” and “army capitalist-roader” to be imprisoned for 6 year long time and was persecuted to death. (4) Che Xiangchen’s bronze statue, now constructed to commemorated him; he was Liaoning Province Vice governor, in January, 1971, was labeled as “capitalist-roader” and “Northeast betray party group”, was persecuted to death. (5), Chen Xianzhou, Shenyang deputy mayor, Liaoning Province vice governor, because “capitalist-roader” Northeast betray party group” and so on charges, in December, 1969, was persecuted to death.
(6)  Mao and Jiang Qing launched to check the “May 16 elements”
In 1967, “counter-attack the February Countercurrent”, most CCP senior statesmen like Tan Zhenlin, Chen Yi, Xu Xiangqian and so on were attacked. The “old Red Guards” (primarily the children of the CCP high-ranking officials) such as the “Beijing Middle Schools Red Guards Joint Action Committee” was banned by the Central Cultural Revolution Group. Zhang Jianqi (Beijing Steel College student, his father was Ministry of Forestry vice-minister, mother was also senior official, both were overthrown) organized children of the high-ranking officials in Steel College, Foreign Language College, Agricultural University (some are “Joint Action” members) to establish a “Capital May16 Red Guards Group” (mean carry out Mao’s Cultural Revolution “May16 notice”), they “counter-February Countercurrent”, overthrew all, Jiang Qing and so on Incited the “May16 Red Guards Group” to fire Premier Zhou. But in fact they guaranteed their father’s generation. Qi Benyu in March once publicly said that Mao’s headquarters was formed by Mao, Lin Biao, Chen Boda, Kang Sheng, Jiang Qing five people (mean Zhou was not). Red Guards had collected the data about Zhou Enlai’s “Wu Hao and so on separated from CCP in 1930s”. On May 18, Jiang Qing delivered this data to Lin Biao and Kang Sheng. For this Zhou wrote a letter to Mao, explained it was fabricated. Mao did not state his position only wrote: “hand over it to Gentle Cultural Revolution Group each comrade to read, and preserve it.” Because counter-Zhou was unpopular and dangerous, on May 29 Mao said “the left wing’s ‘May 16 coup’ and its viewpoint were extremely wrong, the Central Cultural Revolution Group comrade had to do work to convince them”. But Zhang Jianqi and so on insisted to start a “bombard the headquarters” new high tide. After Wuhan “7.20 event”, rebels in many places robed PLA’s weapons, occurred one after another large-scale resort to violence, upset the army, Mao therefore changed the strategy. At the end of August Mao treated some scapegoats, the Central Cultural Revolution Group’s “Wang Li, Guan Feng, Qi Benyu” and the “May16 army coup” were attacked down, contained “clutch army capitalist-roaders” and “counter-Zhou” and so on activities, stabilized the situation. On August 10 and 11, Central Cultural Revolution Group convened two days’ meeting of Red Guards and rebels of all of Beijing universities and medium schools, arranged to overthrow “May16 army coup”. On August 26, Zhang Jianqi and so on chieftain of “May16 army coup”  were clutched and criticized. In fact, how could Zhang Jianqi and the “May16 army coup” fight But Jiang Qing and so on intentionally let the “May16 army corps” event make to be big noisy, one reason it could proved that the counter-Zhou’s influence was big, so could have the other opportunity to attack Zhou again, two reason they could use this opportunity the to hit their dissidents at will. On September 5, Jiang Qing said to Anhui rebel representatives in Beijing about how to check “May16 counter-revolutionaries”. On 9th, the CCP central office issued a notice to inform all country organizations to listen to Jiang Qing’s “September 5” speech sound recording.
on 23, Mao authorized the CCP Central Committee, State Council, Central Military Committee, Central Great Cultural Revolution Group issued “Anhui ‘P Faction’ And the ‘G Faction’ enthusiastically support and carry out Kang Sheng and Jiang Qing’s ‘September 5’ Instruction”. Xie Fuzhi said clearly in September 10: “To overthrows ‘May16 Corp’, the small organization, need not so big energy, the population does not surpass 50 teenases, [Don't know what that last word is supposed to be-B.H.] main problem is their backstage manager”. The “check May 16 elements” movement was pushed to all over the nation. Zhou’s two bodyguard Zhang Shuying and Gao Zhenpu were also labeled as “May16 members”, Zhou said that “These two are ‘May16 Corp’ members, I do not believe”. On January 24, 1970, Lin Biao, Jiang Qing et al. held the congress in the People’s Great Hall, Lin Biao said that “thoroughly check the ‘May 16’ elements even do not eat and not sleep”. On January 31, the CCP Central Committee sent out “Instruction about attack counter-revolutionary sabotage”, further massively carried out the checking “May16 elements” movement in all over the nation. On February 8, Mao authorized the CCP Central Committee to send out “Decision about establish ‘May 16 Corp Special Case Union Group’”. Wu De was the leader, Li Zhen was the vice- leader of the “The Special Case Union Group”. On March 27, 1970, the CCP Central Committee sent out “Notice about check ‘May16’ counter-revolutionaries”. After Lin Biao’s fall, it continued “thoroughly to check May16 counter-revolutionaries”. What is incredible, after the second plenary session of ninth CCP committee, the once leader of the “special case team” of checking May 16 element, Chen Boda, he himself was made to be a “May 16 coup manipulator”; PLA officer Xiao Hua, Yang Chengwu, Yu Lijin, Fu Chongbi and so on were mixed up with central Great Cultural Revolution Group’s Wang Li, Guan Feng, Qi Benyu, also were “May 16 coup manipulator”; the National Public Security deputy minister and the vice-leader “May 16 Corp Special Case Union Group”, Li Zhen, had commits suicide for this. . The “May 16 reactionaries” was a basket, anyone who was been accused by authority could put in it. Every regional, the city, the county revolutionary committees had labeled many ““May 16 reactionaries” at their will.

(1)  A meeting of interrogating  “May 16 reactioaries”in Shandong Weihai. (2) Poster “Overthrows May16 army corps Black backstage, three anti-element and big rebel Qin Hualong”. (4) “Overthrow May16 counter-revolutionary bloc”. Sichuan Wanxian Cultural Propaganda Team. 1971. (4) Xing Lian: “May 7 cadre school notes”, “Hubei Literature and history”, 2005 No. 2issue, the article matched the picture. It recorded the Central Nationalities Institute in Hubei Shayang’s “May 7 cadre school” checking “May 16 elements” the situation: In the “clutching May16 elements meeting”, all the “students (cadres)” feared that they were clutched out, and feared that they were forced to clutch others. The “cadre school” PLA propaganda Team leader hosted the meeting and he controlled the destiny of the 400~500 “students (cadres)”, he announced: “now the meeting begin…The “May 16 elements” are sitting in yours, we hoped that they can stand out on their own initiative, it is to be lenient with those who confess and severe with those who refuse to. From now on will start to time, only limits five minutes. In five minutes stand out are “confesses” and are lenient with them.” Five minutes passed, no one moved, the leader said: “Our patience is limited, however, we do everything humanly possible, can be extended by five minutes.” Still did not one move, he issued an order: Clutched ou [Don't know-B.H.] XYZ! Immediately, the two persons already ambushed in side of XYZ clutched XYZ to the meeting site front, forced him to stand trial. so three “May 16 elements” were uncovered in this meeting.
(1)  Tyrannized a “May 16 element”. Jiangsu Province did not have “May16” organization, to implement the central spirit, all levels, from province to cities and counties, set up a “special case office” by army “support left” personnel and so on composed, which has very big authority. In Nanjing it was called “320” office. More than 130,000 people were made into “May 16 elements” and received detention, arrest, imprison, interrogation. (2) Inner Mongolian Baotou “May.16” special case union group office reprint: “Chairman Mao and the central authorities’ instruction about checking ‘May16 elements’”. (3) On May 4, 1971, Zhejiang Lin’an County Revolutionary Committee convened a “mobilization meeting of criticize ultra-left thought and check May16 counter-revolutionaries”, the attendance card.
“Check May16 counter-revolutionary Cabal”. Comic album, promotional materials and posters.
6.   State President Liu Shaoqi and the CCP veteran Chen Yi and He Long etc were brutally tortured to death1967-1975
(1)  Liu Shaoqi was brutally tortured to death
Under Mao, Lin Biao and Jiang Qing and so on’s instigation, Liu Shaoqi received interrogated and beaten. The CCP established a “Liu Shaoqi special case team”, Kang Sheng and Zhou Enlai were principally responsible for the project. On August 5, 1967, Liu was injures by the Red Guards, Liu put out the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” and said: “I am People’s Republic of China president, how do you deal with me personally, it does not matter, but I have to defend the President of dignity.” Under Mao’s “a leader, a party, a doctrine” cults system, Liu was beaten, the whole body erosion and stenched, even did not let take a bath. On October 17, 1969, Liu was transported with the airplane from Beijing to a Kaifeng jail. Wang Dongxing et al. refused for Liu to provide all essential medical condition, moreover in Liu 71st birthday, let him to listen to the 12th plenary session of the 8th CCP committee bulletin “forever expelled the rebel, the traitor and scab -Liu Shaoqi from the CCP and continues to criticize Liu Shaoqi and the partner betrays the party treason crimes ......” he was tied on the bed for a long time, the whole body discharging water, hair had two feet long. On November 12, 1969, Liu died, cremated. On his death card was writing: Name: Liu Weihuang; Occupation: Jobless; Cause of death: Dying of illness.
(1)  On April 6, 1967 evening, Jiang Qing planed the first time to clutch Liu Shaoqi in Zhongnanhai to be interrogated, later Liu was tyrannized and was beaten unceasingly. (4) On November 12, 1969, Liu was persecuted to die, his hair 2 feet was long, this was tidied up in the crematory process. (3) Liu Shaoqi’s cremation list, name: Liu Weihuang”, occupation: Jobless, cause of death: dying of illness.
(1)  CCP Central Committee document “ Investigative report about the rebel, traitor, scab Liu Shaoqi crimes”. 1968. (2) All the CCP and all nation people interrogated Liu Shaoqi. (3) Poster: “Forever expelled the rebel, traitor and scab Liu Shaoqi from the CCP”. (3) Book: “Thoroughly criticize Liu Shaoqi betray party treason monstrous crimes”. (4) After Mao died, the CCP rehabilitated for Liu, on May 17, 1980 Beijing held the state funeral and the memorial service for Liu Shaoqi.
(2)        Tragedy of Wang Jiaxiang and Zhang Wentian and the others Wang Jiaxiang, in 1925 joined Communist Youth League and study in Soviet, 1930 returned to china, was the CCP central propaganda department clerk in Shanghai, Red Army director of general political department in Jiangxi Chinese Soviet areas, “Chinese Soviet Republic” diplomacy people’s commissar minister. Mao was repatriated and removed from office in Jiangxi Ruijin by Wang Ming just who came from Soviet. Wang Jiaxiang also supported Wang Ming. But on the Long March road Mao formed a “three person gang” with Zhang Wentian and Wang Jiaxiang. In 1935 CCP’s Zunyi Conference, Wang Jiaxiang played a crucial role to Mao seizing the CCP power, afterward Wang made efforts to consolidate Mao’s leadership, proposed the “Mao Zedong Thought” concept. The CCP’s 6th congress Wang was Political Bureau member, Central Military Committee vice-president. In 1945 the CCP’s 7th congress Mao did not let him work as member of the Central Committee, but Mao pretended “sincerity” for Wang to elect for alternate committee member. After 1949, Wang was ambassador in Soviet, International liaison department minister, secretariat secretary. Kang Sheng and so on attacked him with a “right opportunism” name. After August, 1966, the CCP’s 11th plenary session of the 8th CCP committee, he was compelled to move out of Zhongnanhai; Then his son was brutally interrogated and threw himself into river to commit suicide. Wang Jiaxiang received unendurable have devastated, suffered. At the same time, Wu Xiuquan and so on were also treated as “Wang Jiaxiang’s black gang” and were overthrown. In October, 1966, Mao said that he had a favorable impression to Wang Jiaxiang which let Wang several months not be interrogated. In 1967, Wang was interrogated again, confiscated family’s property, in 1969 detained to the Henan Xinyang and forced to labor. Until after he had illness only then returned Beijing. After Lin Biao event, Wang wrote a letter to Mao to introspect himself, only then Mao let him attend the old Central Committee members “study class”, in August, 1973, the CCP’s 10th congress, Wang worked as member of the Central Committee. On January 25, 1974, Wang Jiaxiang passed away because of sickness in Beijing, died at the age of 68 years old.
Zhang Wentianparticipated in the May 4th Movement of 1919, then successively studies in Japanese, American, the Soviet three countries. at the beginning of 1931, he returned to  Shanghai, was CCP propaganda department minister, latter was Political Bureau member, secretariat secretary, “Chinese Soviet Republic (Jiangxi Ruijin)” People’s committee president (equivalent to Premier) and so on, this time he was sworn enemy of Mao. But on the Long March road Mao and Zhang Wentian formed clique to seize power. Zhang became the CCP top-quality character in name, in fact Mao was manipulated all. In 1945, the CCP’s 7th congress, Mao pushed aside him, his duty getting more and more smaller, successively was China in Soviet ambassador, vice foreign minister. In July, 1959 Lushan conference, he spoke frankly about “the Great Leap Forward” mistake, Mao labeled him as “Peng Dehuai, Huang Kecheng, Zhang Wentian, Zhou Xiaozhou antiparty bloc” member. In the Great Cultural Revolution suffered the brutal persecution, finally, he changed his name “Zhang Pu” (Chinese meaning is an average person) was settled in the Jiangsu Wuxi, on July 1, 1976 died of illness.

(1)  From left: Mao, Zhang Wentian, Wang Jiaxiang, Chen Yun, Wang Ming, Liu Shaoqi, Deng Fa in the third anniversary meeting of Yan’an Resist-Japan Military and Political University, on June 1, 1939. (2) From left: Chen Yun, Wang Jiaxiang, Liu Shaoqi, Deng Fa, Wang Ming, Mao, Zhang Wentian, members of the CCP Central Committee in Yan’an, 1939. (3) Wang Jiaxiang, Mao, and Deng Xiaoping. 1959.
(1)  Zhang Wentian was Mao’s sworn enemy in Jiangxi Ruijin, but on the Long March road, Mao wanted to form clique to seize power, he introduced his countrywoman Liu Ying to be the wife of Zhang Wentian. (2) Mao and Zhang Wentian (left) in Yan’an. (3) Mao and Zhang Wentian, 1956. (4) Mao, Zhou Enlai, Zhang Wentian, Chen Yi in Zhongnanhai. 1956. (4) Zhang Wentian and Peng Dehuai were interrogated.
(3)  He Long was persecuted to death by Lin Biao and Kang Sheng, so-called “February mutiny”
He Long, born in 1896founder and main leader of PLA, vice-president of CCP Central Military Committee, vice-premier. Because Lin Biao frequently was sick, from 1964 on Mao let He Long manage the military commission routine work. In order to form an alliance, Mao and Lin stopped Luo Ruiqing’s duty in December, 1965, He Long no longer managed the military commission work. In March, 1966, the Central Military Committee set up a new Regiment to go Hebei to relief big earthquake, when they returned to Beijing to lend houses as the barracks. This matter does not have relations with Peng Zhen and He Long. In July, 1966, Ding Jian, Beijing University Communist Youth League Committee’s worker, wrote the big-character poster “shocking mutiny in February”, said that the army was the Peng Zhen and He Long secretly moved troops to Beijing for mutiny; Kang Sheng in the Beijing Normal University said that “Peng Zhen and so on planed the coup d’état is the absolutely true”. Beijing Normal University’s work team leader Mr. Sun was removed from office because he did not agree the “February mutiny”. On August 2, Deng Xiaoping said in a meeting in People University: did not have any matter of “February mutiny”. But Kang Sheng on August 4 in Beijing University said that Peng Zhen did the coup d’état. On August 26 Lin Biao said that He Long incited others to seize the leadership of the PLA General Staff, Ye Qun incited Mr. Song. Head of military commission office security guard Department, wrote about He Long want secretly to kill Mao. At the beginning of September, Lin Biao arranged Wu Faxian et al. to compile data of He Long intending to control air force. Kang Sheng announced at the central Great Cultural Revolution group meeting: He Long secretly moved troops for “February mutiny”. The “mutiny” story got more and more strange, Xu Guangda was become “chief staff of the mutiny”. In February, 1967 Li Zuopeng said in a navy meeting: Last February, He Long wanted to move No.63 army to Beijing, because the central saw through He’s plot, only then the coup d’état was attempted. On September 13, 1967, Mao instructed to establish “He Long special case team” officially. On November 1, the team “He Long special case work tentative plan” said that He Long “rebel and collaborator to enemy”. on June 9, 1969, He was brutally persecuted to death, used the name “Wang Yu” cremated quietly. On May 17, 1971, the special case team wrote the investigative report, proposed to dismiss He’s party membership, expelled from the Army as “enemy collaborator within the PLA and CCP, and anti-Party element”. In 1980 the CCP central “Kang Sheng Question’s Investigative Report” wrote: “February mutiny event, is a purely rumor fabricated by Kang Sheng schemed to overthrow Peng Zhen and He Long”.
(1)  In August, 1952, PLA’s 25th anniversary, Deng Xiaoping, He Long, Zhu De on the chairman’s podium. (2) He Long and Mao. (3) “Overthrows He Long”. Interrogate the Three Anti-element He Long Connecting Station edited. At the beginning of 1968, Mao wrote on Heilongjiang Province Revolutionary Committee Report: “Liu, Deng, Tao and their partners Peng Dehuai, He Long, Peng Zhen, Luo Ruiqing, Lu Dingyi, Yang Shangkun, An Ziwen, Xiao Hua and so on counter-revolutionary revisionists, hiding in the party for long time, had occupied the Party, government and army leading body’s important duty, had formed the rebel group.” (4) “He Long is a big bandit, overthrow He Long”. Shanghai Education Bureau Equipment Service Revolution Rebellion Group, compiled and printed.
(1)  Mao signed and issued the CCP Central Committee, the State Council, Central Military Committee, the Central Cultural Revolution Group order: “The national sport commission (including national defense club) system, is concocted by inner-party top-quality capitalist-roaders in conspiracy with counter-revolutionary revisionist He Long, Liu Ren, Rong Gaotang to defer to the means of Soviet revisionism.” On October 13, 1968, Mao announced the above conclusion once more in the 12th plenary session of the 8th CCP committee. The national sport commission “East Is Red” Revolution Rebellion headquarters, Beijing Workers Peasants Soldiers Sports College Revolution Rebellion Brigade, Ping pong Class “Red Rebellion Connecting Station” compiled and printed “Overthrows He Long, Rong Gaotang counter-revolutionary revisionism group! Smash the revisionism sports route thoroughly!”. (2) “Shocking mutiny in February”. State-operated No.543 Factory Iron Broom Rebellion Group. (3) “February Mutiny And Smooth View Building”. (3,4) On June 9, 1975, the CCP central held He Long funeral ceremony in Babaoshan, Zhou Enlai attended He Long funeral and delivered the memorial speech for He Long.
(4)  The death of Chen Yi and his memorial service
Chen Yi (1901-1972), one of the CCP founders, CCP Political Bureau member, vice-president of Central Military Committee, State Council vice-premier concurrently foreign minister, at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Mao mentioned his name to be overthrow, received brutal persecution; on January 6, 1972, died in Beijing 301 hospital. The hospital entrance gathered massive populace spontaneously which alarmed the CCP central. Zhou Enlai awkwardly arranged the memorial service, because Chen Yi was overthrown, it could not according to party and state leaders. The plan of the form and specification and memorial speech for Chen Yi, wrote by Zhou, and delivered to Mao to examine, Mao wrote: “basically is available, the merit commentary is not suitably to reads in the memorial service “Li Desheng (director of PLA general political department) managed the memorial service. Originally it arranged Ye Jianying (vice-president of military commission) to delivered the memorial speech (but Mao suddenly came in the venue, so it was suddenly changed Zhou to delivered the memorial speech). Participates in the memorial service population was limited for 500 people, held on January 10 afternoon in the Babaoshan martyr public cemetery. But Song Qingling, Crown Prince Sihanouk as well as many democratic personages intended to come. Zhou Enlai only used the reasons of cold weather, narrow location and so on to advise against them to come repeatedly. Mao simply had not intention to attend the memorial service originally, this afternoon, he suddenly discovered conscience, bound his sleeping pajamas, rushed to car to go to attend the memorial service immediately; His guards and health staffs took his coat and hat to pursue him to the venue, Because the venue was simple arranged and did not have the warm air, therefore Mao suffered a cold, after the memorial service he was in a serious illness.

1Chen Yi and Mao.(2) On November 26, 1966,Mao’s the eighth interview Red Guards, Chen Yi, Jiang Qing, Kang Sheng took Mao’s quotations to ride on this car, followed Mao’s vehicle to inspect the Red Guards. (3) “Overthrow Chen Yi firmly!” Scene of the Red Guards struggle Chen Yi. If it was not Mao’s intention, the Red Guards did not dare to have so motions. (3) “Why we must overthrow Chen Yi?” Revolution Rebellion Regiment, Cultural Relation with Foreign Commission. July, 1967.
(1,2) “Bombard Chen Yi”, publicity materials. (3) On January 6, 1972, Chen Yi passed away. On January 10, a simple arrangement’s memorial service for Chen Yi was held in Babaoshan public cemetery assembly hall. Zhou Enlai delivers the memorial speech which was defined that did not surpass 500 characters. It was huge difference to compare with Kang Sheng and Xie Fuzhi’s memorial service.
Mao simply had not intention to attend the memorial service originally, he suddenly discovered conscience, reflected about Lin Biao’s fall and had a guilty, so bound in his sleeping pajamas, rushed in car to go to attend the memorial service immediately; His guards and health staffs took his coat and hat to pursue him to the venue, temporarily to him put on the coat and the mourning band, the venue was simple and cold, someone gave his own hat put on to him. At the memorial service, he said to Su Yu (粟裕): “Jinggang Mountain’s old comrades are few!” He to Prince Sihanouk who participated in memorial service: “I only have one close comrade, but he wanted secretly to kill me ......” Photo by Du Xiuxian.

7United Fleet”, Lin Biao and his son prepared to seize power1970-1971

Before April, 1970, Wu Faxian (Air Force commander) had handed over the air force’s command jurisdiction to 25 year-old Lin Liguo. Lin Liguo and Zhou Yuchi, Liu Peifeng, Wang Fei, et al. constituted a special panel in the air force headquarters office, collected the information and secret contacted for Lin Biao to seize power. On May 1 evening, Lin Biao “the most close comrade” has mounted Tian An Men together with Mao. On May 2 evening, Lin Liguo’s special panel at Lin Biao’s home held a secret meeting. On May 3 evening, the special panel held an “oath loyally”: “we must forever loyal to Vice-President Lin, which is loyal to Chairman Mao”. Hereafter they successively wrote many “loyalty letter” to the Lin Biao and his son. The expanded special panel was called the “united fleets”, Lin Liguo was commander of the “little fleet”, the “great fleet” command by Lin Biao and Ye Qun. Because of May 13, 1967, Ye Qun provoked promoted Wu Faxian and Li Zuopeng’s office post, so every year’s May 13 they came to Lin Biao and Ye Qun to gives loyalty activity, on May 14, 1970, Huang Yongsheng, Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, Qiu Huizuo gave Ye Qun a loyalty letter, and took a commemoration photo.
(1)  Lin Biao and Ye Qun. (2) Huang Yongsheng, former name Huang Xuqian, Mao changed name his name as Huang Yongsheng, Political Bureau member, PLA admiral and chief of the general staff. After Lin Biao’s fall in September, 1971, Huang was removed from office, latter was sentenced for 18 years. (3) Wu Faxian (1915-2004), Political Bureau member, air force commander. After Lin Biao’s fall in September, 1971, Wu was sentenced imprisonment 17 years. (4) Li Zuopeng (1914-2009), lieutenant general, navy political commissar. In October, 1968, Lin Biao promoted him as the PLA vice-chief of the general staff; After in 1971 Lin Biao’s fall, was sentenced to 17 years. (5) Qiu Huizuo (1914-2002), Political Bureau member, PLA General Logistics Department minister. Qiu’s memoirs said, when in 1935 the Red Army evacuated out of Jiangxi, Red Army had killed large quantities of people. After Qiu had reported to Deng Fa (1906-1946, leader of the CCP) that he completed the task of bury the machines and documents and so on which could not carry with; unexpectedly Qiu was tied up for massacre to eliminate the potential informant. Zhou Enlai passed by just in time saw Qiu who was tied up, asked Deng Fa what was the mater. Deng Fa said that keeping Qiu alive was the disaster, if he runs away, it would expose the buried points. Zhou said: He was only a child! So Qiu’s life was saved. Afterward in Long March, Zhou was serious illness of liver abscess, remained unconscious, Qiu and other three people used the stretcher to lift Zhou out of the lawn. Zhou Enlai mentioned it many times. In the Cultural Revolution initial period, Qiu was broken a rib and shoulders by the rebels, Lin Biao wrote a paper to rescue his life again, so afterward he followed close to Lin Biao. After Lin Biao’s fall, Qiu was sentenced for 16 years. Afterward Zhou adopted protection for Qiu.
(1)  Li Zuopeng, Wu Faxian, Qiu Huizuo tour on the Great Wall. Photo by Du Xiuxian. (2) Huang Yongsheng and Ye Qun. (3) Right up: Wang Bingzhang, Lin Liguo, Li Zuopeng, Lin Biao, Huang Yongsheng inspected the Red Guards. Photo by Du Xiuxian. (4) Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, Qiu Huizuo, Lin Liguo, inspected defense industry achievement; At that time they received more than 10,000 people to line the street to welcome. On July 23, 1970.
8.   The second plenary session of the 9th CCP central committee(Lushan Meeting), Mao group struggled with Lin group1970
When Mao dueled with Liu Shaoqi, Mao abolished the position of the “state president” and the rubber stamp of the “National People’s Congress”. Mao’s imperial authority succession plan encountered Lin Biao and his son seizing power. Mao determined to compete with Lin Biao group. The third National People’s Congress was held in 1964, it had passed many years, Mao wanted to use the rubber stamp “National People’s Congress” to defeat Lin Biao, so he held the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee, prepared to hold the 4th National People’s Congress. But Lin Biao wanted to use this opportunity, snatched the position of President perfectly justifiable from Mao’s hand.
 In July, 1959, the CCP enlarged Central Political Bureau meeting convened in Mt. Lushan, Peng Dehuai was overthrown, substituted by Lin Biao. In August, 1970, the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee convened in Mt. Lushan, Mao wanted to crush Lin Biao. Lin Biao’s body was difficult to support only then to sacrifice all of him, his wife and son attended the conference; Lin Biao proposed that state must have a president, and proposed Mao to hold the post, and attacked the persons who did not agree to set the post of the state president. Chen Boda had prepared materials to propagandize “Mao is the talent” under Lin Biao’s instruction, they wanted to compel Mao not to have the escape route. Mao did not let Lin Biao work as the state president, but to get rid of Lin Biao was not easy, Mao took Chen Boda to operate first. The most meeting attendees, the local officials, did not know what it meant, thought to discuss the national economic planning. Wu Faxian proposed in the meeting to study Lin Biao’s speech, Chen Boda also echoed, many attendees agreed to set up the post of the state president. Mao on 25th convened the enlarged meeting, Mao said “Chen Boda’s speech has violated the policies of the CCP’s ninth congress ......You continue to do like this, I will descend the mountain, let you do. Do not mention the question of state president again, if you want me to die earlier, let me work as state president, who insisted to set up the post, who works as it. I did not work as it in any case”. Afterward the meeting mainly criticized Chen Boda. The second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee winded up hastily. Lin Biao embarrassed to leave the Mt. Lushan, determined the planning of armed coup.
(1)  From August 23 to September 6, 1970, the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee was held in Mt. Lushan, Mao and Lin Baio in this congress. It was a decisive battle of Mao with Lin Biao. Photo by Du Xiuxian. (2) Before the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee, on August 21, 1970, (right up): Lin Liguo, Ye Qun, Li Zuopeng, Wu Faxian, Qiu Huizuo in the Mt. Lushan fairy cave. Photo by Du Xiuxian. (3) Zhou Enlai at Mt. Lushan, the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee. (4) Poster: “Great Truth”. Propagandized Lin Biao.
(1)  Mt. Lushan people theater, Lin Biao started from here “to come on political stage”, also he started from here “to leave office”. But Mao thought that let Lin Biao leave office immediately is too anxious, therefore Chen Boda was overthrown in this Mt. Lushan meeting. (2) Chen Boda is only the nominal leader of the “Central Cultural Revolution Group”, in fact Jiang Qing operated all. After Mt. Lushan’s the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee, Chen Boda was referred as “the Kuomintang anti-communism member, Trotskyite faction, rebel, spy”, had finished his political life. (3) Wang Dongxing and Mao in Mt. Lushan. Mao’s trusted subordinate Wang Dongxing, in this conference he thought that Lin Biao would win and  supposed to set up the post of the state president, but finally he saw that Lin Biao’s potential defeated, he made the self-criticism immediately, returned to support Mao. (4) (right up) Qiu Huizuo, Huang Yongsheng, Lin Biao, Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, on September 6, 1970, after Mt. Lushan’s the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee before return to Beijing, took a group photo in the Jiujiang airport airplane. These four people are known as Lin Biao’s “four guardian warriors”. Photo by Du Xiuxian.
9.   Lin Biao and his sons murdered Mao, instigated the coup but was defeated, fled to Mongolia1971
After Mt. Lushan’s the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee, Mao intended to overthrow Lin Biao but could not use the way of overthrowing Liu Shaoqi, only weaken Lin Biao group’s power and influence as soon as possible. In October, 1970, Lin Biao and Lin Liguo mobilized their “united fleets”, formulated the coup plan—“571 Projects Summary”. Mao alerted to the possible danger. Mao faced with the political situation accident always left Beijing to the outside areas for seeing opportunities for attack. After he gave the proposition to open the third plenary session of the 9th CCP committee and the 4th session of National People’s Congress, on August 14, 1971, Mao in his secret south patrol, secretly tell some provincial official about destroy Lin Biao group. Lin Biao group do everything possible to snoop Mao’s whereabouts and content, designed eighty or nine kinds murder program to kill Mao. On September 10, Mao changed his traveling schedule suddenly, secret arrived at Beijing Fengtai east station on 12th, called and interviewed Beijing’s Party and government and army leaders Li Desheng, Wu De et al on his special vehicle, in the evening safely return Zhongnanhai. After Lin Biao’ murder plot bankruptcy, they decided to fly south to Guangzhou, to set up another CCP central committee. On September 12 evening, Zhou Enlai learned from Lin Biao’s daughter and so on that Lin Biao wanted to flee by plane, immediately instructed to control Lin Liguo’s special plane. Only Zhou Enlai issued an order to be able to take off. Late at night Zhou Enlai received Ye Qun’s telephone about use airplane, Zhou Enlai stabilized Lin Biao, which caused Lin Biao and Ye Qun to be more panic, Lin Biao decided to change original run south to flee north to Soviet. At 0:00 on the 13th, Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Lin Liguo despite the block of the security guard army, forced the plane take-off without co-pilot and navigator, anxiety and desperately fled away. Afterward they were killed in Mongolia because lack of jet fuel the airplane fell.
(1)  Abortion of the third plenary session of the 9th CCP, Mao went southern tour and gave suggestion to several provincial leaders
(1)  Mao was on the train in his southern patrol. In August 1971,Mao’s girlfriend Xie Jingyi’s husband knew that Lin Liguo in Shanghai and other places such set up armed-groups, Xie told Mao, Mao immediately left Beijing for his southern tour, to “greet” the southern regional officials to be vigilant about Lin Biao’s splitting CCP. (2) Afterward the CCP Central printed and distributed Mao’s conversation summary in south patrol. Mao originally prepared to hold the third Plenary Session of the 9th CCP Committee, had been cancelled by Mao, because Lin Biao’s rebel motion, (3) In August, 1971, one day Mao lived in his special villa “828 projects” in Jiangxi Nanchang in his southern patrol, here Mao met Xu Shiyou (Nanjing Military Area Commander) and Cheng Shiqing (Jiangxi provincial party committee secretary) et al. Now this Mao’s villa is rebuilt into as “Nanchang 828 state guesthouse”, and also call “Chuilin golf resort hotel”. (4) Xu Shiyou, had merit to protect Mao in his southern patrol.
(2)  Lin Biao and his son instigated to murder Mao and hold armed uprising
(1)  Lin Biao’s last public appearance, in 1971 Beijing Tiananmen Square held “May1” the festival celebration party, Lin Biao accepted Zhou Enlai’s arrangement reluctantly sitting in Mao’s opposite on Tiananmen rostrum. (2) After the second plenary session of the 9th CCP committee, Lin Biao group thought that Mao would operate to them immediately. By this time, a Lin Biao’s picture which was Jiang Qing photographed and entitled “Tireless”, published on the cove of the “People’s Pictorial”(1971, 7 & 8 issue) and the ‘Liberation Army Pictorial” (1971, 7 & 8 issue). Therefore Lin Biao group members thought that “the storm has passed”. But Mao immediately began his southern patrol to arrange to disintegrate Lin Biao group. (3,4) After Lin Biao’s fall, the CCP central released materials: Lin Biao’s handwriting order of implementation coup’s on September 8, 1971; Lin Biao before fleeing gave Huang Yongsheng’s letter on September 10, 1971.
In 1960s, throughout the country spent large amount of money to construct secret temporary palaces, villa and so on for Mao and Lin Biao and so on. Hangzhou had constructed a secret temporary palace for Lin Biao, the code number was “704 project”, located at presently the Zhejiang Guesthouse underground; In fact it was prepared as the coup d’état’s Military base, covered an area of 307 Chinese acres, had the most advanced communication equipment, weapon (import from Germany) and ammunition room. But Lin Biao had not come here. Henceforth may know Mao’s secret temporary palace and the villa to be more expensive and luxurious.
(1,2,3) Lin Biao and his trusted subordinate Huang Yongsheng (PLA chief of the general staff) by name of “prepare war” on January 31, 1969, secretly decided to construct an anti-atomic war underground headquarters in Huang Yongsheng’s hometown Hubei Xianning, named for “131 project”. This top-secret project was surrounded by hills, it was very difficult to discover by airplane low-altitude reconnaissance; it had constructed Mao and Lin Biao’s villa with ballroom, studio, conference room, gymnasium facilities and so on. Tunnels were extended in all directions, once had the situation, momentarily could be shifted. In the underground works, there were eight entrances with thickness 30 centimeter lead gates, total length of nearly 800 meters and more than 130 housing units, the area the approximately 2000 square meters. The total investment 130,000,000 Yuan (approximately 1,000,000,000 Yuan according to present value). Initially it designed also had the airport, railroad, highway and so on auxiliary project. Because Lin Biao’s collapse, project then had not ended. In 1981, the “131” project was transformed to be scenic site and health resort “Xianning Chengshui Tunnel Hotel”. (4) Huang Yongsheng was in the special tribunal defendant’s seat. Photo by Tang Likui.
After Lin Biao’s fall, the CCP published the materials: Lin Liguo instructed to imitate amphibious vehicle, Lin Liguo and his “training team” and “little fleet” members carried on the driving training in Beidaihe.
(1,2) Lin Biao group in the Guangzhou Baiyun Mountain’s secret foothold, the equipment for the coup d’etat. (3) On November 24, 1980, People’s Daily “Record of Lin Biao Counter-revolutionary Coup d’état Bankruptcy”: Lin Liguo arranged the mission to explode Mao, he said: “this time must reward according to merit. The Head (refers to Lin Biao) once said that who can complete this task, who are the country founding fathers.”
Lin Liguo formulated the coup plan—“571 Projects Summary” (Part)
林立果等策划实施武装起义五七一工程”  19714月,纪要》,对政变可能性、必要性、基本条件、时机、力量、口号和纲领、实施要点、政策策略,保密和纪律都作了周密和部署。 49,林立果、江腾蛟、王维国在上海策划秘密成立政变武装“教导队,“做到对林彪和林立果的两个誓死捍卫”,并规定:凡上海、北京、广州等大城市籍的战士、高级干部子弟,一律不入选;每人配长短枪各一支,严格军事训练。要求全国哪里需要,就往哪里调。
——独裁者越来越不得人心, ——统治集团内部很不稳定,争权夺利、勾心斗角、几乎白热化。——军队受压 军心不稳高级中上层干部不服、不满,并且握有兵权小撮秀才 仗势横行霸道,四面树敌头脑发胀,对自己估计过高。——党内长期斗争和文化大革命中被排斥和打击的高级干部敢怒不敢言。——农民生活缺吃少穿青年知识分子上山下乡,等于变相劳改。——红卫兵初期受骗被利用,已经发现充当炮灰,后期被压制变成了替罪羔羊机关干部被精简,上五七干校等于变相失业工人(特别是青年工人)工资冻结,等于变相受剥削。
他们一批今天利用这个打击那个;明天利用那个打击这个。今天一小撮,明天一小撮,加起来就是一大批。他们这样做,他利用封建帝王的统治权术,不仅挑动干部斗干部 、群众斗群众,而且挑动军队斗军队、党员斗党员,是中国武斗的最大倡导者。他们制造矛盾,制造分裂,以达到他们分而治之、各个击破,巩固维持他们的统治地位的目的。他知道同时向所有人进攻,那就等于自取灭亡,所以他今天拉每个时期都拉一股力量,打另一股力量。
(3) The coup plotted by Lin Biao and his son was defeat, all his family anxiety fled, the plane fell and people died
(1)  Mao looked map on his special train in hi southern patrol, unceasingly and suddenly changed his traveling schedule, escaping Lin Biao group’s many kinds of murder plan to design to kill him quick-wittedly, safely returned to Beijing, caused the Lin Biao and his son’s coup plot bankruptcy. (2) Lin Biao’s trusted friend Zhou Yuchi et al. carried on the secret air bombardment flying training. (3) After Lin Biao’s fall, the CCP central published Li Weixin (Lin Biao’s loyalists) confession materials about murder Mao. (4) Jiang Tengjiao, political commissar of PLA air forces No. 4 army. Lin Biao intended to arrange him to be political commissar of air army when Wu Faxian was raised to director of general political department of PLA. Wu Faxian and Jiang Tengjiao through Liu Su Yuan (刘素媛), Mao’s “dance partner” and actress of Air Army Cultural Work Team, knew that Mao did not agree with this arrangement, therefore Jiang Tengjiao even more gave loyalty to Lin Biao and hated Mao, he participates in the Lin Biao coup d’état motion. In September, 1971, Jiang Tengjiao wrote “Process of plotting to murder Chairman Mao event” . He was sentenced to 18 years.
Lin Biao group’s coup d’état guiding principle “571 project” summary. After Lin Biao’s fall, the CCP central difficultly published these materials in 1972.
The coup plot got bankruptcy , on September 13, 1971, Lin Biaos family anxiety fled, all were killed in Mongolian Öndörhaan because the airplane crashed lack of jet fuel oil. The corpses of Lin Biao, Lin Liguo, Ye Qun the. Photo by Sun Yixian.

(3)       The CCP Central Committee announced Lin Biao event difficultly to common people

At that time, Newspapers and the broadcast program and the entire medium, all content were about “Vice-President Lin”, and the “blessing” to him. After September 13, 1971, Zhou Enlai personal command in the People’s Great Hall to make a series of emergency deployment, to the propaganda and the reports set the explicit and the strict requests. At that time Lin Biao’s whereabouts was clear, but the consequence was unclear, had to make most anxiously worst plan. The Central Broadcasting Station took three measures: First, “observe closely” the Moscow Broadcasting Station’s broadcast, once it had any about Lin Biao’s reports and the trend, report to the CCP central committee immediately. Second, in the interior controlled severely, to seize the initiative, took the bold measures, removed Lin Biao’s name and idioms, and the inscription, etc., off immediately in the broadcast and so on, stopped to broadcast articles, songs and the program of extolling Lin Biao. Third, repeatedly to broadcast “Internationale”, “Three Disciplines Eight Points for Attention”, strengthen the discipline, all obey Chairman Mao and the CCO central’s direction. In one day had to remove and change a lot of the day and night’s programs, simultaneously had manufactured many new programs, and had seales [Don't know-B.H.] massive old programs. The media content changed in a single night, but had not reported Lin Biao event’ for a long time, although the overseas medium had the report.
On September 18, Mao signed and issued the CCP central top-secret document “1971 No.57 the CCP central committee document”, notice about Lin Biao rebel and flee abroad, it restricted only to transmit in the members of the CCP Central Committee. Mao then signed and issued the top-secret documents, the 1971 No.61, No. 62, No. 64 CCP central documents. On October 6, Mao again signed and issued the top-secret document the 1971 No. 65 “the CCP central committee about to further expand transmit about Lin Biao event’s notice”, until on October 24, 1971, Mao only then signed and issued “the CCP central committee notice about to transmit to the all national populace about Lin Biao betray party treason event”, transmitted gradually and strictly according to the process from CCP central committee to the province (city) committee, then to the county level cadres, at last transmitted to the common party then to the non-party populace such a slow and long process. The grass roots knew the matter after the time Mao signed and issued on July 3, 1972, the CCP central 1972 No.24 top-secret document “the CCP central crushing Lin Biao antiparty bloc counter-revolutionary coup d’état’s struggle”. Only then all the people knew the matter’s partial truth.

The CCP Central notice of transmit to the national populace about Lin Biao betray party and treason event 1971 No.67
中共中央关于向全国群众传达林彪叛党叛国事件的通知   中发 197167
19711024 (此件发至农村人民公社党支部,城市工、矿、企业、事业单位党支部,机关、连队党支部)

(1)  In 1971 and 1972, Mao had signed and issued many CCP central top-secret documents, about to transmit “crush Lin Biao antiparty bloc event” from CCP Central Committee to provincial then to county CCP committee, from CCP members to non-party populace gradually. (2,3) The CCP Central Committee’s top-secret document, had a appendix attached in the “notice about to transmit crush Lin Biao antiparty bloc event”: The central special case team edited “Lin Biao Antiparty bloc Counter-revolutionary Coup d’état’s Evidence”.
10Liaoning Province “Extremely surprisingly left” under Mao Yuanxin’s rule during Cultural Revolution
Mao Yuanxin was a political “star” which Mao Zedong emitted. According to the requirements of Mao Zedong’s successor, had the workers, peasants and soldiers’ experience; Mao Yuanxin after graduation from Harbin Military Engineering Institute, enlisted in the military in Northeast China, had done the class struggle in countryside “the socialist education”; in May, 1967 returned to Beijing, Mao Zedong wanted him to be his personal “observer” of the Cultural Revolution, especially to care Liaoning’s Cultural Revolution. The 27 year-old Mao Yuanxin in May, 1968, was appointed Liaoning Province Revolutionary Committee assistant director, then was appointed Shenyang Military Region Command political commissar, known as the “Northeast’s overlord”. Because Mao Zedong gave him the special support, caused Mao Yuanxin’s authority power and the prestige position was far higher than on his body’s duty. Mao Zedong issued the highest instruction “Liaoning is greatly hopeful”. Later Mao Yuanxin had held a special duty “Mao Zedong’s liaison officer”. Mao Yuanxin carried on various political activity in Liaoning, was “extremely and surprisingly left”, at that time Liaoning became one of national living condition most bitter province.

(1)  Liaoning rebels pasted the big-character posters in Beijing “sentence to death to Song Renqiong and so on the capitalist-roaders in Northeast Bureau”. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (2) In 1967, Liaoning Shenyang, the big-character posters on the streets. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) Liaoning Shenyang, 300,000 persons interrogation congress (struggle the CCP Northeast Bureau and Liaoning Province’s leaders Yu Ping, Gu Zhuoxin and so on). Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
Liaoning rebels had the unique struggle way, they struggled the CCP Northeast Bureau and Liaoning Province “capitalist-roaders”, “big rebels” “the three anti-elements” as well as “the worn-out shoes (women)”; Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
Liaoning rebels had the unique struggle way, Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
(1)  Liaoning Shenyangpropaganda parade of interrogating “capitalist-roaders”. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (2) A factory workers were interrogating their CCP branch secretary and the factory manager and so on “capitalist-roaders”, Bawang Temple, Shenyang, Liaoning. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) A criticize meeting was holding in the “mass grave”, Yingkou, Liaoning. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
(1)  On May 23, 1967, the revolutionary model plays joint performance held in Shenyang People Stadium. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (2) Shenyang Police Station Building: “All country should become Mao Zedong Thought university school”. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) Shenyang, people holding Mao’s quotations parade. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
In May, 1968, grand celebration for the establishment of Liaoning Province Revolutionary committee, each kind’s large-scale parade activity, a formation tired the people and squandered resources. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
(1)  Shenyang rebels wrote the “big-character posters” on the ground, 1967. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (2) The scene of the different carried on great debate in square and streets in Shenyang, before the rebel faction’s war. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) In 1967, Shenyang elementary students watched and supported adult rebel factions fight just like “bet the ball”. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
(1,2) Liaoning was one of rebels resort to violence intense areas. Shenyang “attacks with reasoning and defend with force” soldiers rushed toward the resort to violence site. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) Resort to violence, each one of the two rebel factions occupied a commanding point respectively in the Shenyang station square, and both sides declared that their own faction must win in the next battle. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
(1)  In 1968, Liaoning rebels snatched PLA’s weapons to carry on seize power, afterward the CCP central sent the order to collect and capture the weapons, the rebel organizations assisted the army to collect and return the weapons. Shenyang Military Region Command set up the “weapon receiving terminal”. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (2) In 1969, Liaoning elementary students were training shot. Photo by Jiang Shaowu. (3) Liaoning Changhai County, family members all worked as the militiamen. Photo by Jiang Shaowu.
A variety of learning materials during the Cultural Revolution: a part of Mao Yuanxin’s speeches and reports at various conferences.

Image: struggle session poster.