Sunday, January 30, 2011

Protests in Egypt

No sighting of the Goddess of Democracy in Cairo this morning.

Things are still coalescing, or un-coalescing, in Egypt.  The girl heavy metal band "Jasmine Revolution," which has been credited with curing the facial condition Tunisia, is being cited as inspiration for full-throated democrats like my brother in photo at top.

There are photographs of demonstrators carrying signs with messages that reinforce the reporting yesterday by The New York Times that there is more un-coalescing than coalescing going on:

Justice is a good thing, I like justice. I just don't think they and I mean the same thing when we use the term.

She's cute and I would like to personally offer her my protection (as long as that would not be construed as American interference). 

There you go. President Mubarak's predecessor, Anwar Sadat, was assassinated for signing a peace treaty with the country whose blue star adorns their flag.

That's the photograph of former Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser being held aloft there. Following an assassination attempt in 1954 (assassinations are popular in Egypt), President Nasser "ordered one of the largest political crackdowns in the history of Egypt," according to Wikipedia.

President Mubarak attempted to offer an olive branch recently with the appointment of Omar Suleiman, his right hand man, to the vice presidency so that he could be his right hand man. The young and the restless were not assuaged: "Hosni Mubarak, Omar Suleiman, both of you are agents of the Americans," Reuters quoted the masses as responding.

Speaking of Americans, President Barack (Hope & Change) Obama, is "pressing for change" in Egypt according to The New York Times but has decided not to call on President Mubarak to step down because of concern that the U.S. "could lose all leverage over the Egyptian president," which sure sounds pretty close to me to making Mubarak an "agent of the Americans" as the Egyptian demonstrators chanted. The more things change the more they stay the same.

Meanwhile, somebody named "Fawaz Gerges," at the London School of Economics has weighed in on this intifada, saying, according to Reuters:

"This is the Arab world's Berlin moment. The authoritarian wall has fallen, and that's regardless of whether Mubarak survives."

Now I, Benjamin Harris, do not do my learned work at the London School of Economics. I could not get into the London School of Economics as a janitor. But I herewith make this solemn public pledge: If this is the Arab world's Berlin moment and authoritarianism has fallen in that world I will fly to London to kiss Fawaz Gerges' a** (unless he would prefer me not to).

Saturday, January 29, 2011

Protests in Egypt

This is a sight that generally makes me feel all pleased and gooey inside.  Be a bomb thrower, love bomb throwers.

Bombs, actually rocks and bottles, are being thrown all over the streets of Cairo in protest.

What are our fellow Egyptian homo sapiens protesting against, and what are they protesting for?  I read carefully the account in today's New York Times for answers to these two preeminent questions. The answer to the first question is clear: the protests are against the government and President Hosni Mubarak, which are almost synonymous. And there is much to protest against in the government of Hosni Mubarak: corruption, authoritarianism and the other usual suspects in governments like Hosni Mubarak's.

The answer to the second question is not so clear, or clear in it's lack of clarity. The Times describes the protesters as "apparently spontaneous, non-ideological and youthful." Youth is almost synonymous with spontaneity. And with restlessness, The Young and the Restless, right?  Isn't that the name of some American soap opera or something?  And youths often don't have the knowledge that comes with greater learning to make ideological choices, not that ideological choices are always wise.

So, if the Times description of the protesters is accurate, then the protests are unfocused, and what Egypt's spontaneous youths are protesting for is answered with the blank, uncomprehending stare also often common to youth.

There does not seem to be an undercurrent of Islamic revolution here, at least not yet, nor of "freedom" as that is meant in the West, and as was meant (sort of) by the Tienanmen demonstrators in China in 1989, at least not yet and, in my opinion, inconceivably so in the foreseeable future. For there are no Federalist Society sleeper cells in the Muslim world.

But there is anger in the Muslim world. It is the angriest world in the world it seems to me. So kids, have fun if that's what you're having, be careful 'cause Hosni don't play. We in America are watching you closely. We'll see you down the road, either as friends as I hope or, as enemies, as I think more likely.

Friday, January 28, 2011

In Memoriam: Challenger


My, of my, it has been 25 years.

I remember where I was. I was just coming home from work, had stopped at the corner grocery store to buy something, the TV was on, I was only half paying attention and didn't get it.  Only when I got home did my wife (ex numero dos) tell me. I was stunned.

After I had watched the television footage several times and it had sunk in I remember wondering, "Are other people as stunned as I am?  Maybe I'm reacting over-dramatically."  I called my parents who at that time wintered in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. They had seen it live as it turned out, New Smyrna not being far from Cape Canaveral. "Awful,"  "Yes, terrible," they said.  Tentatively, almost sheepishly, I said it reminded me of JFK's assassination.  "Oh, absolutely Ben. We thought the same thing."

Bad day.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

"The Chinese Cultural Revolution," by Zhang Mu. Chapter 1.1-9

This is the next section in Mr. Mu's Chapter 1.1 which 
contains the corrections made to the paragraph
mentioned in the introduction to the previous post.
I was able to find one of the photos Mr. Mu uses here
on Google Images. Below is that which Mr. Mu
refers to as showing CCP soldiers carrying a KMT
flag.  That would have been a definite "no-no," as
Aly Rose would say.-B.H. 

(1) The Kuomintang army confronted Japanese forces at the Suzhou River. (2) On June 28, 1940, 86 Japanese planes carried out a more than three-hour bombing in Chongqing, the Kuomintang’s capital, leadership of Anti-Japan War. (3) Song Zheyuan’s 29th Army’s “Broadsword Team” assaulted Xifengkou at night.
Above is a CCP propaganda picture hyping the Eighth Route Army’s “Hundred Regiments Campaign.” In the picture can be seen the Eighth Route Army lifting the Kuomintang's flag. From August to December 1940, Peng Dehuai directed the Eighth Route Army to send 400,000 persons (105 regiments) to fight against the Japanese continually for three months. The Eighth Route Army annihilated tens of thousands Japanese, but its losses were too great. Initially the CCP approved it and Mao once had also made affirmation. However, afterward Mao said that the “Hundred-Regiments Campaign” “had prematurely exposed our army’s strength”, that  “the fight showed impure motives intended to raises someone’s own prestige”, “director crudely, to act recklessly”, “had helped Chiang Kai-Shek Kuomintang's busy,” and so on. In 1959 at the CCP’s “Lushan conference” this became a reason to criticize Peng Dehuai.
Mao and Chiang Kai-Shek’s negotiations in Chongqing in August, 1945.
(3) Many KMT generals were sacrificed at the front, opposing Japan; Zuo Quan was the only CCP general who was sacrificed in the war.
During the Anti-Japanese War, the Kuomintang Armies sacrificed more than 100 generals, but the CCP only 
sacrificed one, Zuo Quan, the Eighth Route Army’s deputy chief of staff. Moreover Zuo Quan was 
designated as a "Trotskyist" in the CCP’s internal fighting and was punished “to remain in party to 
examine” until his death. In the photograph at top left Zuo Quan is shown with his wife Liu Zhilan and 
their baby daughter in August 1940. In center, the Zuoquan Martyr’s Cemetery in Liao County, Shanxi 
Province, which was renamed “Zuoquan County” in the general’s honor. In the photo a top right: On July
 15, 2005 July, “The Zuoquan Red Traveling Development Limited Company” held a grand operation 
ceremony and the fireworks show in evening, but at this night this company took 2 million Yuan 
quietly to leave Zuoquan County. Not only did they leave a ruin, but also many worker’s wage in 
arrears. The swindlers once boasted that 3.2 billion Yuan was invested in the Red Traveling 
development in Zuoquan.
The sacrificed generals of Kuomintang Armies during the Anti-Japanese War:
姓名    军衔         牺牲时间 、地点
佟麟阁 上将(追授),29军副军长 1937728北京南苑
赵登禹上将(追授),132师师长 1937728北京南苑
郝梦龄上将,9军军长 19371016山西忻口
刘家麒中将,54师师长 19371016山西忻口
吴克仁中将,67军军长 1937119上海江松
高志航空军少将,驱逐司令 19371121河南周家口
夏国章中将,172师副师长 19371121浙江湖州
吴国璋 中将,75师副师长 19371126浙江湖州
饶国华上将,145师师长 19371130安徽广德(自杀)
肖山令中将,宪兵副司令 19371212江苏南京
姚中英少将,156师参谋长 19371212江苏南京
司徒非少将,160师参谋长 19371212江苏南京
刘震东中将,第五战区第二路游击司令 1938222山东莒县
王铭章上将(追授),122师师长 1938317山东藤县
邹绍孟少将,124师参谋长 1938317山东藤县
赵渭滨少将,122师参谋长 1938317山东藤县
范庭兰少将,豫北别动队第五总队总队长 1938328河南修武
刘桂五少将,骑兵第六师师长 1938422内蒙黄油干子
李必蕃中将,23师师长 1938514山东菏泽(自杀)
黄启东少将,23师参谋长 1938514山东菏泽(自杀)
方叔洪中将,114师师长 19386山东冯家场
冯安邦中将,42军军长 1938113湖北襄阳
林英灿少将,152师副师长 1938113广东清远
李国良中将,军训部辎重总监 193937陕西西安
张谞行中将,第一战区副参谋长 193937陕西西安
王禹九少将,79军参谋处长 1939326江西高安
陈安保中将,29军军长 193956江西龙里
张唐聚五少将,东北游击司令 1939518河北平台山
马玉仁中将,江苏第一路游击司令 194013江苏望乡台
丁炳权中将,197师师长 1940125江西武宁
郑作民中将,2军副军长 194023广西昆仑关
钟毅中将,173师师长 194059湖北苍台(自杀)
张自忠上将(追授),33集团军总司令 1940516湖北南瓜店
张敬少将,33集团军高参 1940516湖北南瓜店
戴民权中将,豫南游击第五纵队司令 19405河南遂平
王竣中将,新27师师长 194159山西台寨
梁希贤少将,新27师副师长 194159山西台寨(自杀)
陈文杞少将,新27师参谋长 194159山西台寨
唐淮源上将,3军军长 1941512山西县山
寸性奇中将,12师师长 1941513山西毛家湾
金崇印少将,17军参谋长 1941916山西横水镇
石作衡中将,70师师长 194196山西绛县
赖传湘中将,190师副师长 1941924湖南梁家段
李翰卿中将,57师步兵指挥官 1941927江西上高
武士敏中将,98军军长 1941929山西东峪
朱士勤中将,暂30师师长 194254山东潘庄
郭子斌少将,暂30师副师长 194254山东潘庄
戴安澜中将,200师师长 1942526缅甸茅邦村
王凤山少将,19427 缅甸埋通
张庆澍少将,鲁苏战区高参 19428山东唐王山
周复中将,鲁苏战区政治部主任 1943221山东城顶山
张少舫少将,113师参谋长 1943221山东城顶山
高道先少将,山东铁道破坏总队长 19435山东
江春炎少将,114师参谋长 194374山东邹县
彭士量中将,暂5师师长 19431115湖北石门
许国璋中将,150师师长 19431121湖北诹市(自杀)
孙明瑾中将,预10师师长 1943121湖南常德
卢广伟少将,骑8师副师长 194455安徽颖上
李家钰上将,36集团军总司令 1944521河南秦家坡
陈绍堂少将,104师步兵指挥官 1944521河南秦家坡
周鼎铭少将,36集团军副官处长 1944521河南秦家坡
王剑岳少将,8师副师长 1944610河南灵宝
王甲本中将,79军军长 194497湖南东安
阚维雍中将,131师师长 19441110广西桂林(自杀)
陈济恒中将,桂林防守司令部参谋长 19441110广西桂林(自杀)
齐学启中将,38师副师长 1945513缅甸仰光
胡旭盱少将,第三战区第一突击队司令 19456浙江孝丰

Monday, January 24, 2011

"The Chinese Cultural Revolution," by Zhang Mu. Chapter 1.1-8

This is a continuation of the main text of Mr. Mu's Chapter 1.1.  My apologies once again to Mr. Mu and readers alike for the inability to easily copy his marvelous photographs. I'm still trying but it is my judgment that the writing should not be held up. Such is my confidence in my photo-posting abilities. 

Mr. Mu asked when he sent me his work to please help him by making corrections in the English grammar and spelling. I have done that with Microsoft Word's automatic program and by utilizing that program have made additional corrections when I have noticed them. Clearly, I have not come close to turning this into a finished English product however. Part of that I confess is due to time constraints. Part also to not wanting to mess with the man's words. I just spent about 15 minutes thinking about a sentence that Mr. Mu wrote in the next installment.  This was the sentence:

In 1959 CCP“Lushan conference” it had became reason to criticize  Peng Dehuai.

This was Microsoft's  prompt on that sentence and it gave no suggested corrections (Swine Microsoft):

In 1959 CCP"Lushan conference" it had became reason to criticize Peng Duhai.

Okay, okay, I didn't need Microsoft's help to correct the spacing between CCP and "Lushan, so I did that. Then I capitalized Conference. Then I changed "became" to the present tense and inserted the article "a," so that the sentence now read, 

In 1959 CCP "Lushan Conference" it had become a reason to criticize Peng Duhai.

"In 1959 at the Lushan Conference...?"  "In 1959, the CCP at the Lushan Confernce...?"  "At the CCP's 1959 Lushan Conference...?"  

Mr. Mu wrote "CCP" in there, I wasn't going to take it out so I nixed the first variation. The rest of the sentence, "it had become a reason to criticize Peng Duhai," was trickier.  I read the full paragraph:

This is the CCP propaganda picture, hype of the Eighth Route Army’s “hundred-regiments in the picture it can be seen the army lifts Kuomintang's flag. From August to December,1940, Peng Dehuai directed the Eighth Route Army to send 400,000 persons (105 regiments) to fight continual 3 months, annihilated tens of thousands Japanese, but Eighth Route Army's loss was also too big. Initially the CCP approved it and Mao once had also made affirmation, afterward Mao said that the “hundred-regiments campaign” “had premature exposed our army strength”, “the fight showed impure motives, intended to raises someone’s own prestige”, “director crudely, to act recklessly”, “had helped Chiang Kai-Shek Kuomintang's busy” and so on. In 1959 CCP“Lushan conference” it had became reason to criticize  Peng Dehuai.

S***!  Why didn't Swine Microsoft prompt me on the other typos?   So I corrected them. Now the substance--which is, like, the most important part, no?--of this paragraph is that although initially Marshal Peng's "Hundred Regiments" (Should that be capitalized? I don't know. Do I have time to check? No.) were hyped by Party propaganda, and the mission of the Eighth Route (Route?) Army was approved by the Party, afterward the campaign, and Peng, came in for criticism from Mao at Lushan. 

So did I change the whole paragraph to that?  Noooo. That's too much messing with Mr. Mu's words. So I corrected the typos and let the rest of it alone. But that didn't resolve my uneasiness with Mr. Mu's meaning in that last sentence. Were the Eighth Route Army's travails a "legitimate," reason for criticism of Peng at Lushan?  Or were they a pretext?  In Mr. Mu's opinion.

I did not know that the goddamn Eighth Route Army had anything to do with the Peng-Mao fight at Lushan. I still do not know that. The historical importance of Lushan is that Peng challenged Mao over the failures of the Great Leap Forward and got purged. If Peng hadn't challenged Mao over the GLF at Lushan, the Eighth Route Army could have been wiped out, Peng would still have remained Defense Minister, and Lushan would be remembered only as a scenic vacation spot. But that's not what Mr. Mu wrote. So I'm not changing it!  What am I changing it to? I don't know yet!

3. Fought on the “Long March” road, under Moscow’s control Mao work as the party chieftain1936-1937
Depending on “hitting local tyrants” and Soviet Russia's support, it was difficult to maintain Jiangxi's Central Soviet Area, in addition the CCP inner conflict (hitting “the AB group”, counterrevolutionary suppression and so on); the central Red Army was compelled to flee. Simultaneously the Soviet Russia was also afraid Japan to seize China to harm itself, so detained Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-Shek’s son who studied in Soviet Russia as hostage, let Kuomintang oppose Japan and to protect Mao and Chinese Red Army (i.e. “the former Soviet Union Red Army's Chinese crew”). Chinese Red Army fled toward west to approach Soviet Union and Mongolia. On the one hand the CCP shouted loudly to north to oppose Japanese, on the other hand the area near Russia did not have Japanese. A year later they fled to northern Shaanxi, the main force more than eighty thousand of the Central Red Army reduced only six thousand. This is the "Long March”. In Ruijin the "Chinese Soviet Republic" and in "Long March" road the CCP was controlled by Soviet Union (Comintern representative Ono Braun), Because the support of Moscow and Mao’s shrewd political skill, Mao defeated Zhang Guotao and Wang Ming who had more army and higher political status than Mao. Mao worked as the CCP chieftain.
(1) Ono Braun, Comintern representative and CCP military adviser in Ruijin’s “the Chinese Soviet Republic” and in the “Long March” road. (2) Liao Chengzhi (1908-1983), member of CCP 12th session Central Political Bureau committees, fifth session vice-chairman of National People's Congress Standing Committee. His parents were Kuomintang's senior statesmen Liao Zhongkai and He Xiangning. In Long March process Liao Chengzhi was “criminal”, was being detained by Red Army, sometimes wore handcuffs or tie up to walk the Long March road. (3) Mao and Zhang Guotao in Yenan in 1938. (4) Wang Ming (Chen Shaoyu): Once CCP general secretary, born in 1904, in 1925 joined CCP and was sent to Moscow to study. In 1929 returned China, after 1930, supported by Comintern representative Mif, he managed the CCP Central Committee’s work. Stalin ordered him to restrict Mao. But afterward Stalin support Mao’s core status, Wang Ming lost power and because of sickness long-term rest. In the 1942 Yenan rectification movement Wang Ming was attacked by Mao. In October, 1950 he went to Moscow to recuperate. Lived for a long time in Soviet Union and wrote a book to attack Mao. Mao gave many charges in domestic to criticize Wang Ming. 1974 Wang died of illness in Moscow. (5) Left to right: Zhang Wentian, Kang Sheng, Zhou Enlai, Kai Feng, Wang Ming, Mao Zedong, Ren Bishi, Zhang Guotao, in 1938 in Yenan.
In January, 1931, the 4th Plenary Session of the CCP central committee was in noisy, Wang Ming under the Comintern support was the CCP leader, and the real power was in Zhou Enlai. But He Mengxiong, Luo Zhanglong and so on set up a “second central CCP committee”, later it had established the second provincial CCP committee in each regionsbut was defeated soon by the Comintern. In October, 1935 Zhang Guotao led the Red Fourth Front Army to establish a “CCP Central Committee” and “Central Government” in north Sichuan, announced to abolished duties of Mao and Zhou Enlai et al. Mao’s “CCP Central Committee” led more than 10,000 people soon became more than 4000, arrived at North Shaanxi on October 19. 1935. The Comintern sent Lin Yuying (other name: Zhang Hao, Lin Biao's cousin) to return China from Moscow, arrived at Yan’an in December, 1935, represented Moscow to support Mao’s “CCP Central Committee”. (1) Mao Zedong and Zhang Guotao in Yan’an, 1938. (2) Lin Biao, Lin Yuying (Zhang Hao) and Mao Zedong in Yan’an. (3) Lin Yuying died of illness in Yenan on March 6, 1942, Mao Zedong personally lifted the coffin to bury, wrote the tombstone.
4The inner fighting between Mao and Zhang Guotao caused the annihilation of 20,000 men of the Red Army’s West Route, the CCP had covered this history1936-1937

Chinese Soviet movement mainly divided into several areas: Mao et al. was the Central Soviet area in Jiangxi, its Red Army was called the Central Red Army; Zhang Guotao's was “Hubei, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu Soviet area”; In addition also had He Long's “Hubei Honghu Soviet area”, Liu Zhidan's “North Shaanxi Soviet area” and so on. The Comintern wanted Mao to leave Jiangxi and unite with Zhang Guotao, but Zhang Guotao’s army and the influence was much stronger than Mao, therefore on the Long March road each faction fought vigorously. After each route Red Army gathered at North Shaanxi, continued to fight. Moscow wanted Zhang Guotao's Red Army to found the base in the Gansu Corridor, makes a connection with Soviet Union, so it called the “West Route Army”; Mao kept the North Shaanxi Yenan to expand the base. Encountered serious attack by Qinghai warlord’s army and Mao played trick as well as the Moscow had a bias and supported Mao, in October, 1936, Zhang Guotao’s “West Route Army” 21800 officers and men had been completely annihilated in Gansu Corridor, more than 7000 people were killed and more than 9000 people were captured. Mao and the North Shanxi's CCP Central Committee were preparing shift to go “the second Long March”, but because Moscow arranged “Xi'an Incident” which saved North Shaanxi Mao’s Red Army, as well as helped Mao to eliminate his enemy Zhang Guotao. The West Route Army's history had been covered half century by Mao, many survivors of West Route Army were also received Mao’s persecution, for example high-ranking general officer Xiong Guobing starved to death in Gansu Jiuquan in October, 1960; some others were tortured and non-normally died in “Cultural Revolution”. After Mao's death, a CCP leader Chen Yun only then dared to say the West Road Army's history in November, 1981: “This problem cannot be avoided”. But the CCP “avoided” too much history problem about its inner fight.
 (1) Red Fourth Army (West Route Army) prepared to go west to cross the Yellow River. (2, 3) West Route Army in Xinjiang Dihua (Urumqi). (4) Li Xiannian and so on led West Route Army broke through enemy in Xinjiang, after multi-rescues returned to Yenan in March, 1937. This was on February 21, 1940 in Yenan's group photo.
(1) Partial officers and men of Red West Route Army who were captured. (2, 3) The remains of the West Route Army officers and men.
5. Kuomintang opposed Japan in front, the CCP held inner fight in the rear of Yan'an, Cultural Revolution's embryonic form1937-1949
(1) Moscow planned the Xi'an Incident which saved the Chinese Red Army, Moscow coordinated the first "KMT-CPC cooperation", and the Red Army changed its name to the Eighth Route Army
In 1930s Chiang and Kuomintang encircled the CCP, Stalin withheld Chiang’s son, Jiang Jingguo (study in Moscow) as hostage, compelled Chiang to oppose Japanese and protected Mao and CCP. So Mao and CCP settled down in North Shaanxi. Chinese Red Army arrived at North Shaanxi still was difficult to maintain, in October, 1936, Mao asked Moscow for money urgently “regardless of fifty thousand or ten thousand, as soon as possible”. The Comintern mailed 550,000 US dollars immediately, transmitted through the US and Song Qingling. But this inextricability the problem of Chinese Red Army’s eats and cloths in the winter. Stalin coordinated the “Kuomintang and CCP cooperation”. In August, 1937, Chiang's National Government reorganized the national total 40 armies, the CCP’s Red Army was arrange as the “Eighth Route Army”( in addition the Red Army which had not passed the Long March was the “New Fourth Armies”). Henceforth, CCP’s armies were supplied rations and pays by Chiang’s National Government, and existed officially. Mao simply did not want to oppose Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War but to expand his Eighth Route Army and to seize power. The initial ratio 60:1 of Kuomintang’s army men and CCP’s army men, became3:1 at the end of the Anti-Japan War
 (1) “Central Red Army” started the Long March. (2) The 15th regiment of the Red Army on the Long March road in September, 1935. (3) Partial cadres of the 2nd and 6th regiments of Red Army in Dading County, Guizhou Province on the Long March way. (4) Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu after Long March arrived at North Shaanxi.
(1) Soviet Union had saved Chinese Red Army which arrived at North Shaanxi, Red Army was reorganizes as the Eighth Route Army, by National government supplied rations and pays; the photo was Mao Zedong and Zhu De who wore the Kuomintang’s military uniform. (2) Ye Ting, New Fourth Army Commander, wore the Kuomintang’s military uniform. (3) In 1937 Deng Xiaoping was appointed as assistant director of Eighth Route Army headquarters; political department. (4) Lin Biao, Commander of 115 Division of Eighth Route Army, wore the Kuomintang’s military uniform. (5) New Fourth Army soldiers.
(2) Kuomintang army heroic opposed Japan in the front
Mao Zedong wrote letter to Chiang Kai-Shek's in 1938, highly praises Chiang Kai-Shek’s leadership and Kuomintang armies’ role in Anti-Japanese War. Only after Mao's death then some media released this letter.
                                  毛泽东谨启  民国二十七年九月二十九日”
(1) Yellow River was going to be in flood, but the Kuomintang armies crossed Yellow River to continue to resist the Japanese invader. (2) In 1937 the Kuomintang armies in Xinkou front, fired into the enemy position and launched the hand-to-hand fighting with the enemy. (3) Kuomingtang armies on Nanjing city wall. (4) Kuomingtang armies used anti-aircraft machine gun fired at Janpanese plane in Shanghai battlefield.